Subscribe

Issue No.06 - June (2010 vol.21)

pp: 841-856

Xiaoying Zheng , Shanghai Research Center for Wireless Communications (WiCO) and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai

Chunglae Cho , University of Florida, Gainesville

Ye Xia , University of Florida, Gainesville

DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TPDS.2009.133

ABSTRACT

A distinct trend has emerged that the Internet is used to transport data on a more and more massive scale. Capacity shortage in the backbone networks has become a genuine possibility, which will be more serious with fiber-based access. The problem addressed in this paper is how to conduct massive content distribution efficiently in the future network environment, where the capacity limitation can equally be at the core or the edge. We propose a novel technique as a main content transport mechanism to achieve efficient network resource utilization. The technique uses multiple trees for distributing different file pieces, which at the heart is a version of swarming. In this paper, we formulate an optimization problem for determining an optimal set of distribution trees as well as the rate of distribution on each tree under bandwidth limitation at arbitrary places in the network. The optimal solution can be found by a distributed algorithm. The results of the paper not only provide stand-alone solutions to the massive content distribution problem, but should also help the understanding of existing distribution techniques such as BitTorrent or FastReplica.

INDEX TERMS

Content distribution, peer-to-peer networks, multicast, optimization, bandwidth allocation.

CITATION

Xiaoying Zheng, Chunglae Cho, Ye Xia, "Optimal Swarming for Massive Content Distribution",

*IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems*, vol.21, no. 6, pp. 841-856, June 2010, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2009.133REFERENCES

- [1] K. Wieland, "DigiWorld 2006: Voice and Low Prices Drive FTTH in Japan,"
Telecomm. Online, http:/www.telecommagazine.com, Nov. 2006.- [2] J. George, "FTTH Design with the Future in Mind,"
Broadband Properties, Sept. 2005.- [3] K. Cho, K. Fukuda, H. Esaki, and A. Kato, "The Impact and Implications of the Growth in Residential User-to-User Traffic,"
Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, Sept. 2006.- [4] BitTorrent Website, http:/www.bittorrent.com/, 2009.
- [5] L. Cherkasova and J. Lee, "FastReplica: Efficient Large File Distribution within Content Delivery Networks,"
Proc. Fourth USENIX Symp. Internet Technologies and Systems (USITS), Mar. 2003.- [6] J. Lee and G. de Veciana, "On Application-Level Load Balancing in FastReplica,"
Computer Comm., vol. 30, no. 17, pp. 3218-3231, Nov. 2007.- [7] D. Kostić, A. Rodriguez, J. Albrecht, and A. Vahdat, "Bullet: High Bandwidth Data Dissemination Using an Overlay Mesh,"
Proc. 19th ACM Symp. Operating Systems Principles (SOSP '03), Oct. 2003.- [8] D. Kostić, R. Braud, C. Killian, E. Vandekieft, J.W. Anderson, A.C. Snoeren, and A. Vahdat, "Maintaining High Bandwidth under Dynamic Network Conditions,"
Proc. USENIX Ann. Technical Conf., 2005.- [9] B.-G. Chun, P. Wu, H. Weatherspoon, and J. Kubiatowicz, "ChunkCast: An Anycast Service for Large Content Distribution,"
Proc. Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS), Feb. 2006.- [10] K. Park and V.S. Pai, "Scale and Performance in the CoBlitz Large-File Distribution Service,"
Proc. Third USENIX/ACM Symp. Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI), May 2006.- [11] S.Q. Zhuang, B.Y. Zhao, A.D. Joseph, R.H. Katz, and J. Kubiatowicz, "Bayeux: An Architecture for Scalable and Fault-Tolerant Wide Area Data Dissemination,"
Proc. 11th Int'l Workshop Network and Operating Systems Support for Digital Audio and Video (NOSSDAV), June 2001.- [12] Akamai Website, http:/www.akamai.com, 2009.
- [13] D. Bickson, D. Malkhi, and D. Rabinowitz, "Efficient Large Scale Content Distribution,"
Proc. Sixth Workshop Distributed Data and Structures (WDAS '04), July 2004.- [14] J. Cannons, R. Dougherty, C. Freiling, and K. Zeger, "Network Routing Capacity,"
IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 777-788, Mar. 2006.- [15] M. Grotchel, A. Martin, and R. Weismantel, "Packing Steiner Trees: A Cutting Plane Algorithm and Computation,"
Math. Programming, vol. 72, pp. 125-145, 1996.- [16] K. Jain, M. Mahdian, and M.R. Salavatipour, "Packing Steiner Trees,"
Proc. 14th Ann. ACM-SIAM Symp. Discrete Algorithms (SODA), 2003.- [17] D. Bertsekas and R. Gallager,
Data Networks, second ed. Prentice Hall, 1991.- [18] D. Bertsekas,
Nonlinear Programming, second ed. Athena Scientific, 1999.- [19] R. Madan, Z. Luo, and S. Lall, "A Distributed Algorithm with Linear Convergence for Maximum Lifetime Routing in Wireless Networks,"
Proc. Allerton Conf. Comm., Control, and Computing, Sept. 2005.- [20] D. Bertsekas and J.N. Tsitsiklis,
Parallel and Distributed Computation: Numerical Method. Athena Scientific, 1997.- [21] R.E. Tarjan, "Finding Optimum Branchings,"
Networks, vol. 7, pp. 25-35, 1977.- [22] L.F.P.M. Camerini and F. Maffioli, "A Note on Finding Optimum Branchings,"
Networks, vol. 9, pp. 309-312, 1979.- [23] P.A. Humblet, "A Distributed Algorithm for Minimum Weight Directed Spanning Trees,"
IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 756-762, June 1983.- [24] Z.-Q. Luo and P. Tseng, "On the Rate of Convergence of a Distributed Asynchronous Routing Algorithm,"
IEEE Trans. Automatic Control, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 1123-1129, May 1994.- [25] R.G. Gallager, "A Minimum Delay Routing Algorithm Using Distributed Computation,"
IEEE Trans. Comm., pp. 73-85, Jan. 1977.- [26] J.N. Tsitsiklis and D.P. Bertsekas, "Distributed Asynchronous Optimal Routing in Data Networks,"
IEEE Trans. Automatic Control, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 325-332, Apr. 1986.- [27] "Rocketfuel: An ISP Topology Mapping Engine," Univ. of Washington, http://www.cs.washington.edu/research/ networking rocketfuel /, 2009.
- [28] A.R. Bharambe and C. Herley, "Analyzing and Improving BitTorrent Performance," Technical Report MSR-TR-2005-03, Microsoft Research, 2005.
- [29] R. Kumar and K. Ross, "Peer-Assisted File Distribution: The Minimum Distribution Time,"
Proc. IEEE Workshop Hot Topics in Web Systems and Technologies (HOTWEB), 2006.- [30] D.M. Chiu, R.W. Yeung, J. Huang, and B. Fan, "Can Network Coding Help in P2P Networks?"
Proc. Fourth Int'l Symp. Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc and Wireless Networks, 2006.- [31] J. Mundinger, R.R. Weber, and G. Weiss, "Optimal Scheduling of Peer-to-Peer File Dissemination,"
arXiv e-Print Service, http://arxiv.org/abs/cs.NI0606110, June 2006.- [32] Y. Wu, P.A. Chou, and K. Jain, "A Comparison of Network Coding and Tree Packing,"
Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Information Theory (ISIT), June 2004.- [33] J. Edmonds, "Edge-Disjoint Branchings,"
Combinatorial Algorithms, R. Rustin, ed., pp. 91-96, Academic Press, 1973.- [34] D. Qiu and R. Srikant, "Modeling and Performance Analysis of BitTorrent-Like Peer-to-Peer Networks,"
Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2004.- [35] F. Kelly, A. Maulloo, and D. Tan, "Rate Control for Communication Networks: Shadow Price, Proportional Fairness and Stability,"
J. Operational Research Soc., vol. 49, pp. 237-252, 1998.- [36] S.H. Low and D.E. Lapsley, "Optimization Flow Control - I: Basic Algorithm and Convergence,"
IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 861-874, Dec. 1999.- [37] X. Lin and N.B. Shroff, "Joint Rate Control and Scheduling in Multihop Wireless Networks,"
Proc. 43rd IEEE Conf. Decision and Control (CDC), 2004.- [38] A. Eryilmaz and R. Srikant, "Fair Resource Allocation in Wireless Networks Using Queue-Length Based Scheduling and Congestion Control,"
Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2005.- [39] J. Wang, L. Li, S.H. Low, and J.C. Doyle, "Cross-Layer Optimization in TCP/IP Networks,"
IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 582-595, June 2005.- [40] L. Chen, S.H. Low, M. Chiang, and J.C. Doyle, "Cross-layer Congestion Control, Routing and Scheduling Design in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,"
Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2006.- [41] Y.N. Wu and S.-Y. Kung, "Distributed Utility Maximization for Network Coding Based Multicasting: A Shortest Path Approach,"
IEEE J. Selected Areas Comm., vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1475-1488, Aug. 2006.- [42] P. Key, L. Massouliè, and D. Towsley, "Path Selection and Multipath Congestion Control,"
Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, May 2007.- [43] R. Bindal, P. Cao, W. Chan, J. Medval, G. Suwala, T. Bates, and A. Zhang, "Improving Traffic Locality in BitTorrent via Biased Neighbor Selection,"
Proc. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), 2006.- [44] H. Zhang, G. Neglia, D. Towsley, and G.L. Presti, "On Unstructured File Sharing Networks,"
Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, May 2007.- [45] S. Liu, R. Zhang-Shen, W. Jiang, J. Rexford, and M. Chiang, "Performance Bounds for Peer-Assisted Live Streaming,"
Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS, pp. 313-324, June 2008.- [46] S. Sengupta, S. Liu, M. Chen, M. Chiang, J. Li, and P.A. Chou, "Streaming Capacity in Peer-to-Peer Networks with Topology Constraints," technical report, Princeton Univ., 2008.
- [47] G.M. Ezovski, A. Tang, and L.L. Andrew, "Minimizing Average Finish Time in P2P Networks,"
Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2009. |