The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.04 - April (2010 vol.21)
pp: 494-505
Nikola Vujic , Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona
Marc Gonzàlez , Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona
Xavier Martorell , Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona
Eduard Ayguadé , Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona
Ease of programming is one of the main requirements for the broad acceptance of multicore systems without hardware support for transparent data transfer between local and global memories. Software cache is a robust approach to provide the user with a transparent view of the memory architecture; but this software approach can suffer from poor performance. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical, hybrid software-cache architecture that targets enabling prefetch techniques. Memory accesses are classified at compile time into two classes: high locality and irregular. Our approach then steers the memory references toward one of two specific cache structures optimized for their respective access pattern. The specific cache structures are optimized to enable high-level compiler optimizations to aggressively unroll loops, reorder cache references, and/or transform surrounding loops so as to practically eliminate the software-cache overhead in the innermost loop. The cache design enables automatic prefetch and modulo scheduling transformations. Performance evaluation indicates that optimized software-cache structures combined with the proposed prefetch techniques translate into speedup between 10 and 20 percent. As a result of the proposed technique, we can achieve similar performance on the Cell BE processor as on a modern server-class multicore such as the IBM PowerPC 970MP processor for a set of parallel NAS applications.
Multicore processor, local memories, software cache, prefetch code generation.
Nikola Vujic, Marc Gonzàlez, Xavier Martorell, Eduard Ayguadé, "Automatic Prefetch and Modulo Scheduling Transformations for the Cell BE Architecture", IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol.21, no. 4, pp. 494-505, April 2010, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2009.97
[1] H. Peter Hofstee et al., "Power Efficient Processor Architecture and the Cell Processor," Proc. 11th Int'l Symp. High-Performance Computer Architecture, 2005.
[2] D. Pham et al., "The Design and Implementation of a First-Generation Cell Processor," Proc. IEEE Int'l Solid-State Circuits Conf., 2005.
[3] M. Kistler et al., "Cell Multiprocessor Communication Network: Built for Speed," IEEE Micro, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 10-23, May 2006.
[4] M. Gschwind et al., "A Novel SIMD Architecture for the Cell Heterogeneous Chip-Multiprocessor," Proc. 17th Hot Chips, 2005.
[5] A.E. Eichenberger et al., "Using Advanced Compiler Technology to Exploit the Performance of the Cell Broadband Engine Architecture," IBM Systems J., vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 59-84, 2006.
[6] McCalpin and D. John, "Memory Bandwidth and Machine Balance in Current High Performance Computers," IEEE CS Technical Committee on Computer Architecture (TCCA), 1995.
[7] B. Ramakrishna Rau et al., "Code Generation Schema for Modulo Scheduling Loops," Proc. 25th Ann. Int'l Symp. Microarchitecture, 1992.
[8] B. Ramakrishna Rau et al., "Iterative Modulo Scheduling: An Algorithm for Software Pipelining Loops," Proc. 27th Ann. Int'l Symp. Microarchitecture, 1994.
[9] D.M. Lavery, "Modulo Scheduling of Loops in Control-Intensive Non-Numeric Programs," Proc. 29th Ann. ACM/IEEE Int'l Symp. Microarchitecture, 1996.
[10] D. Bailey et al., "The NAS Parallel Benchmarks," Technical Report TR RNR-91-002, NASA Ames, Aug. 1991.
[11] sp/n/bld01823 usenBLD01823USEN.PDF, 2008.
[12] M. Dasygenis et al., "A Combined DMA and Application-Specific Prefetching Approach for Tackling the Memory Bottleneck," IEEE Trans. Very Large Integration Systems, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 279-291, Mar. 2006.
[13] T.-F. Chen, "An Effective Programmable Prefetch Engine for On-Chip Caches," Proc. 28th Ann. Int'l Symp. Microarchitecture, 1995.
[14] K.W. Batcher et al., "Interrupt Triggered Software Prefetching for Embedded CPU Instruction Cache," Proc. 12th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symp., 2006.
[15] T. Chen et al., "Prefetching Irregular References for Software Cache on Cell," Proc. Sixth Ann. Int'l Symp. Code Generation and Optimization, 2008.
[16] T. Chen et al., "Orchestrating Data Transfer for the Cell B.E. Processor," Proc. Ann. Int'l Conf. Supercomputing, 2008.
[17] J. Hoeflinger and B. de Supinski, "The OpenMP Memory Model," Proc. First Int'l Workshop OpenMP, 2005.
[18] M. Gonzàlez et al., "Hybrid Access-Specific Software Cache Techniques for the Cell BE Architecture," Proc. 17th Int'l Conf. Parallel Architectures and Compilation Techniques (PACT), 2008.
[19] N. Vujic et al., "Automatic Pre-Fetch and Modulo Scheduling Transformations for the Cell BE Architecture," Proc. 21st Ann. Workshop Languages and Compilers for Parallel Computing (LCPC), 2008.
[20] J. Dongarra and P. Luszczek, "Introduction to the HPCChallenge Benchmark Suite," ICL Technical Report, ICL-UT-05-01 (also appears as CS Dept. of Technical Report UT-CS-05-544), 2005.
[21] Y. Paek, J. Hoeflinger, and D. Padua, "Efficient and Precise Array Access Analysis," ACM Trans. Programming Languages and Systems, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 65-109, 2002.
14 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool