The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.05 - May (2009 vol.20)
pp: 593-606
Kuan-Ta Chen , Academic Sinica, Taipei
Polly Huang , National Taiwan University, Taipei
Chin-Laung Lei , National Taiwan University, Taipei
Understanding the impact of network conditions on player satisfaction, which is one of the major concerns of network game designers, is a popular research topic. Of the various ways to gauge user satisfaction, in this paper, we focus on how network quality affects a player's decision to leave a game prematurely. To answer this question, we analyze a 1,356-million-packet trace from a large commercial Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG) called ShenZhou Online. We show that both network delay and network loss significantly affect a player's decision to leave a game prematurely. It is feasible to predict whether players will quit prematurely based on the network conditions they experience. The proposed model can determine the relative impact of different types of network impairment. For our traces, the degrees of player intolerance to network delay, delay jitter, client packet loss, and server packet loss are in the proportion of 1:2:4:3 approximately. The model can also be used to make system design decisions. Through simulations, we show that by prioritizing server processing according to the goodness of network conditions, employing dejitter buffers, or replacing TCP with a more lightweight transport protocol, the probability of premature departure can be significantly reduced. In this way, we demonstrate how our model of players' network experience provides feedback for the design of online games.
Departure analysis, Internet measurement, logistic regression, MMORPG, quality of service, user behavior.
Kuan-Ta Chen, Polly Huang, Chin-Laung Lei, "Effect of Network Quality on Player Departure Behavior in Online Games", IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol.20, no. 5, pp. 593-606, May 2009, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2008.148
[1] Aetas, Inc., Gametrics Weekly Korea MMORPG Population Survey, gametrics.shtml, 2007.
[2] S. Aggarwal, H. Banavar, A. Khandelwal, S. Mukherjee, and S. Rangarajan, “Accuracy in Dead-Reckoning Based Distributed Multi-Player Games,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Third Workshop Network and System Support for Games (NETGAMES '04), pp. 161-165, 2004.
[3] G. Armitage, “An Experimental Estimation of Latency Sensitivity in Multiplayer Quake 3,” Proc. 11th IEEE Int'l Conf. Networks (ICON), 2003.
[4] T. Beigbeder, R. Coughlan, C. Lusher, J. Plunkett, E. Agu, and M. Claypool, “The Effects of Loss and Latency on User Performance in Unreal Tournament 2003,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Third Workshop Network and System Support for Games (NETGAMES '04), pp. 144-151, 2004.
[5] F. Chang and W.C. Feng, “Modeling Player Session Times of On-Line Games,” Proc. Second Workshop Network and System Support for Games (NETGAMES '03), pp. 23-26, 2003.
[6] K.-T. Chen, P. Huang, and C.-L. Lei, “Game Traffic Analysis: An MMORPG Perspective,” Computer Networks, vol. 50, no. 16, pp. 3002-3023, 2006.
[7] K.-T. Chen, P. Huang, and C.-L. Lei, “How Sensitive Are Online Gamers to Network Quality,” Comm. ACM, vol. 49, no. 11, pp.34-38, Nov. 2006.
[8] K.-T. Chen, P. Huang, G.-S. Wang, C.-Y. Huang, and C.-L. Lei, “On the Sensitivity of Online Game Playing Time to Network QoS,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '06, Apr. 2006.
[9] W.S. Cleveland, “LOWESS: A Program for Smoothing Scatterplots by Robust Locally Weighted Regression,” Am. Statistician, vol. 35, no. 54, 1981.
[10] D.R. Cox and E.J. Snell, Analysis of Binary Data, second ed. Chapman and Hall, 1989.
[11] A. DeLeán, P. Munson, and D. Rodbard, “Simultaneous Analysis of Families of Sigmoidal Curves: Application to Bioassay, Radioligand Assay, and Physiological Dose-Response Curves,” Am. J. Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 235, pp. 97-102, 1978.
[12] J. Egan, Signal Detection Theory and ROC Analysis. Academic Press, 1975.
[13] W.C. Feng, F. Chang, W.C. Feng, and J. Walpole, “A Traffic Characterization of Popular On-Line Games,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 488-500, June 2005.
[14] R.A. Fisher, “On the Interpretation of $\chi^{2}$ from Contingency Tables, and the Calculation of $p$ ,” J. Royal Statistical Soc., vol. 85, pp. 87-94, 1922.
[15] T.J. Hastie and R.J. Tibshirani, Generalized Additive Models. Chapman and Hall, 1990.
[16] T. Henderson, “Latency and User Behaviour on a Multiplayer Game Server,” Proc. Third Int'l COST264 Workshop Networked Group Comm. (NGC '01), pp. 1-13, 2001.
[17] T. Henderson and S. Bhatti, “Modelling User Behaviour in Networked Games,” Proc. Ninth ACM Int'l Conf. Multimedia (MULTIMEDIA '01), pp. 212-220, 2001.
[18] T. Henderson and S. Bhatti, “Networked Games: A QoS-Sensitive Application for QoS-Insensitive Users,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Workshop Revisiting IP QoS (RIPQoS '03), pp. 141-147, 2003.
[19] D.W. Hosmer, S.L. Cessie, and S. Lemeshow, “A Comparison of Goodness of Fit Tests for the Logistic Regression Model, Statistics in Medicine,” Statistics in Medicine, vol. 16, pp. 965-980, 1997.
[20] D.W.J. Hosmer and S.J. Lemeshow, Applied Logistic Regression, second ed. John Wiley & Sons, 2000.
[21] S. Ila, D. Mizerski, and D. Lam, “Comparing the Effect of Habit in the Online Game Play of Australian and Indonesian Gamers,” Proc. Australia and New Zealand Marketing Assoc. Conf. (ANZMAC), 2003.
[22] F.E. Harrell Jr., R.M. Califf, D.B. Pryor, K.L. Lee, and R.A. Rosati, “Evaluating the Yield of Medical Tests,” J. Am. Medical Assoc., vol. 247, no. 18, pp. 2543-2546, 1982.
[23] E.L. Kaplan and P. Meier, “Nonparametric Estimation from Incomplete Observations,” J. Am. Statistical Assoc., vol. 53, pp.437-481, 1958.
[24] M. Kendall, “A New Measure of Rank Correlation,” Biometrika, vol. 30, pp. 81-93, 1938.
[25] J. Nichols and M. Claypool, “The Effects of Latency on Online Madden NFL Football,” Proc. 14th Int'l Workshop Network and Operating System Support for Digital Audio and Video (NOSSDAV'04), pp. 146-151, 2004.
[26] T.P. Novak, D.L. Hoffman, and A. Duhachek, “The Influence of Goal-Directed and Experiential Activities on Online Flow Experiences,” J. Consumer Psychology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 3-16, 2003.
[27] M. Oliveira and T. Henderson, “What Online Gamers Really Think of the Internet?” Proc. Second Workshop Network and System Support for Games (NETGAMES '03), pp. 185-193, 2003.
[28] L. Pantel and L.C. Wolf, “On the Impact of Delay on Real-Time Multiplayer Games,” Proc. 12th Int'l Workshop Network and Operating System Support for Digital Audio and Video (NOSSDAV '02), pp. 23-29, 2002.
[29] L. Pantel and L.C. Wolf, “On the Suitability of Dead Reckoning Schemes for Games,” Proc. First Workshop Network and System Support for Games (NETGAMES '02), pp. 79-84, 2002.
[30] V. Paxson and M. Allman, Computing TCP's Retransmission Timer, RFC 2988 (Proposed Standard),, Nov. 2000.
[31] V. Paxson and S. Floyd, “Wide Area Traffic: The Failure of Poisson Modeling,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 226-244, 1995.
[32] P. Quax, P. Monsieurs, W. Lamotte, D.D. Vleeschauwer, and N. Degrande, “Objective and Subjective Evaluation of the Influence of Small Amounts of Delay and Jitter on a Recent First Person Shooter Game,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Third Workshop Network and System Support for Games (NETGAMES '04), pp. 152-156, 2004.
[33] N. Sheldon, E. Girard, S. Borg, M. Claypool, and E. Agu, “The Effect of Latency on User Performance in Warcraft III,” Proc. Second Workshop Network and System Support for Games (NETGAMES '03), pp. 3-14, 2003.
[34] J. Smed, T. Kaukoranta, and H. Hakonen, “A Review on Networking and Multiplayer Computer Games,” Technical Report 454, Turku Centre for Computer Science, Apr. 2002.
[35] UserJoy Technology Co., Ltd., ShenZhou Online, http:/, 2004.
[36] B.S. Woodcock, An Analysis of MMOG Subscription Growth— Version 23.0, http:/, 2008.
[37] T. Yasui, Y. Ishibashi, and T. Ikedo, “Influences of Network Latency and Packet Loss on Consistency in Networked Racing Games,” Proc. Fourth Workshop Network and System Support for Games (NETGAMES '05), pp. 1-8, 2005.
[38] N. Yee, “Motivations for Play in Online Games,” CyberPsychology & Behavior, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 772-775, Dec. 2006.
[39] S. Zander and G. Armitage, “Empirically Measuring the QoS Sensitivity of Interactive Online Game Players,” Proc. Australian Telecommunications Networks and Applications Conf. (ATNAC), 2004.
30 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool