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Issue No. 04 - April (2009 vol. 20)
ISSN: 1045-9219
pp: 433-445
Cong Liu , Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton
Jie Wu , Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton
Routing is the foremost issue in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). To guarantee delivery and improve performance, most position-based routing protocols, e.g. \emph{greedy-face-greedy} (GFG), forward a message in greedy routing mode until the message is forwarded to a \emph{local minimum} where greedy forwarding is impossible. They then switch to a less efficient mode, face routing. Face routing requires the underlying network to be a planar graph and a unit disk graph (UDG) which makes geometric routing only theoretically feasible. To remove these constraints, this paper tackles the local minimum problem with two new methods. First, we construct a virtual small world network by adding virtual long links to the network to reduce the number of local minima. Second, we use the virtual force method to recover from local minima without relying on face routing. Combining these two methods, we propose a purely greedy routing protocol, \emph{small world iterative navigation greedy} (SWING+) routing protocol. Simulation is performed to evaluate SWING+ against existing geometric routing protocols. Simulation results show that SWING+ guarantees delivery and its performance is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art \emph{greedy other adaptive face routing} (GOAFR+) routing protocol.
Routing protocols, Algorithm/protocol design and analysis

C. Liu and J. Wu, "Virtual-Force-Based Geometric Routing Protocol in MANETs," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 20, no. , pp. 433-445, 2008.
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