The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.10 - October (2008 vol.19)
pp: 1367-1380
When employing a consensus algorithm for state machine replication, should one optimize for the case that all communication links are usually timely, or for fewer timely links? Does optimizing a protocol for better message complexity hamper the time complexity? In this paper, we investigate these types of questions using mathematical analysis as well as experiments over PlanetLab (WAN) and a LAN. We present a new and efficient leader-based consensus protocol that has O(n) stable-state message complexity (in a system with n processes) and requires only O(n) links to be timely at stable times. We compare this protocol with several previously suggested protocols. Our results show that a protocol that requires fewer timely links can achieve better performance, even if it sends fewer messages.
Distributed Systems, synchrony assumptions, eventual synchrony, failure detectors, consensus algorithms, FT Middleware
Idit Keidar, Alexander Shraer, "How to Choose a Timing Model", IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol.19, no. 10, pp. 1367-1380, October 2008, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2008.16
[1] M.K. Aguilera, C. Delporte-Gallet, H. Fauconnier, and S. Toueg, “Stable Leader Election,” Proc. 15th Int'l Symp. Distributed Computing (DISC), 2001.
[2] T. Anker, D. Dolev, G. Greenman, and I. Shnayderman, “Evaluating Total Order Algorithms in WAN,” Proc. Int'l Workshop Large-Scale Group Comm. (IWLSGC), 2003.
[3] O. Bakr and I. Keidar, “Evaluating the Running Time of a Communication Round over the Internet,” Proc. ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), 2002.
[4] A. Bavier, M. Bowman, B. Chun, D. Culler, S. Karlin, S. Muir, L. Peterson, T. Roscoe, T. Spalink, and M. Wawrzoniak, Operating System Support for Planetary-Scale Network Services. Princeton Univ. Press, 2004.
[5] N. Cardwell, S. Savage, and T. Anderson, Modeling the Performance of Short TCP Connections, 1998.
[6] T.D. Chandra, V. Hadzilacos, and S. Toueg, “The Weakest Failure Detector for Solving Consensus,” J. ACM, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 685-722, July 1996.
[7] H. Chernoff, “A Measure of Asymptotic Efficiency for Tests of a Hypothesis Based on a Sum of Observations,” Annals of Math. Statistics, vol. 23, pp. 493-507, 1952.
[8] F. Cristian and C. Fetzer, “The Timed Asynchronous Distributed System Model,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, June 1999.
[9] D. Dobre, M. Majuntke, and N. Suri, “CoReFP: Contention-Resistant Fast Paxos for WANs,” technical report, TU Darmstadt, 2006.
[10] P. Dutta and R. Guerraoui, “Fast Indulgent Consensus with Zero Degradation,” Proc. Fourth European Dependable Computing Conf. (EDCC '02), Oct. 2002.
[11] P. Dutta, R. Guerraoui, and I. Keidar, “The Overhead of Consensus Failure Recovery,” Technical Report 200456, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 2004.
[12] P. Dutta, R. Guerraoui, and I. Keidar, “The Overhead of Indulgent Failure Recovery,” Distributed Computing, 2006.
[13] P. Dutta, R. Guerraoui, and L. Lamport, “How Fast Can Eventual Synchrony Lead to Consensus?” Proc. Int'l Conf. Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN '05), pp. 22-27, 2005.
[14] C. Dwork, N.A. Lynch, and L. Stockmeyer, “Consensus in the Presence of Partial Synchrony,” J. ACM, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 288-323, Apr. 1988.
[15] A. Fernandez, E. Jimenez, and M. Raynal, “Eventual Leader Election with Weak Assumptions on Initial Knowledge, Communication Reliability, and Synchrony,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN), 2006.
[16] R. Guerraoui, “Revisiting the Relationship between Non Blocking Atomic Commitment and Consensus Problems,” Proc. Ninth Int'l Workshop Distributed Algorithms (WDAG '95), pp. 87-100, Sept. 1995.
[17] R. Guerraoui, “Indulgent Algorithms,” Proc. ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), 2000.
[18] R. Guerraoui and M. Raynal, “The Information Structure of Indulgent Consensus,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 53, no. 4, pp.453-466, 2004.
[19] I. Keidar and A. Shraer, “Timeliness, Failure-Detectors, and Consensus Performance,” Proc. ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), 2006.
[20] L. Lamport, “The Implementation of Reliable Distributed Multiprocess Systems,” Computer Networks, vol. 2, 1978.
[21] L. Lamport, “The Part-Time Parliament,” ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 133-169, May 1998.
[22] M. Larrea, A. Fernández, and S. Arévalo, “Optimal Implementation of the Weakest Failure Detector for Solving Consensus,” Proc. Symp. Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS '00), pp. 52-59, 2000.
[23] N. Lynch and M. Tuttle, “An Introduction to Input/Output Automata,” CWI Quarterly, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 219-246, 1989.
[24] D. Malkhi, F. Oprea, and L. Zhou, “Omega Meets Paxos: Leader Election and Stability without Eventual Timely Links,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Distributed Computing (DISC '05), pp. 199-213, Sept. 2005.
[25] U. Schmid, “Failure Model Coverage under Transient Link Failures,” Research Report 2/2004, Technische Univ. Wien, 2004.
[26] P. Urban, I. Shnayderman, and A. Schiper, “Comparison of Failure Detectors and Group Membership: Performance Study of Two Atomic Broadcast Algorithms,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN), 2003.
16 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool