The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.02 - February (2008 vol.19)
pp: 234-246
Application layer peer to peer (P2P) networks are considered to be the most important development for next generation Internet infra-structure. For these systems to be effective, load balancing among the peers is critical. Most structured P2P systems rely on ID-space partitioning schemes to solve the load imbalance problem, and has been known to result in an imbalance factor of &#x0398;(log <em>N</em>) in the zone sizes. This paper makes two contributions. First, we propose to address the virtual server-based load balancing problem systematically using an optimization based approach, and derived an effective algorithm to re-arrange loads among the peers. We demonstrate the superior performance of our proposal in general, and its advantages over previous strategies in particular. We also explore other important issues vital to the performance in the virtual server framework, such as the effect of the number of directories employed in the system, and the performance ramification of user registration strategies. Secondly, and perhaps more significantly, we characterize systematically the effect of heterogeneity on load balancing algorithm performance, and the conditions in which heterogeneity may be easy or hard to deal with based on extensive study of a wide spectrum of load and capacity scenarios.
distributed hash table, load balance, local search, structured peer-to-peer system, generalized assignment problem
Chyouhwa Chen, Kun-Cheng Tsai, "The Server Reassignment Problem for Load Balancing in Structured P2P Systems", IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol.19, no. 2, pp. 234-246, February 2008, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2007.70735
[1] I. Stoica, R. Morris, D. Karger, F. Kaashoek, and H. Balakrishnan, “Chord: A Scalable Peer-to-Peer Lookup Service for Internet Applications,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '01, pp. 149-160, 2001.
[2] F. Dabek, M. Kaashoek, D. Karger, D. Morris, and I. Stoica, “Wide-Area Cooperative Storage with CFS,” Proc. 18th ACM Symp. Operating Systems Principles (SOSP '01), pp. 202-215, Oct. 2001.
[3] X. Wang and D. Loguinov, “Load-Balancing Performance of Consistent Hashing: Asymptotic Analysis of Random Node Join,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 15, no. 5, Oct. 2007.
[4] D. Karger, E. Lehman, T. Leighton, M. Levine, D. Lewin, and R. Panigrahy, “Consistent Hashing and Random Trees: Distributed Caching Protocols for Relieving Hot Spots on the World Wide Web,” Proc. 29th Ann. ACM Symp. Theory of Computing (STOC '97), pp. 654-663, 1997.
[5] C. Ramsay, “The Distribution of Sums of Certain I.I.D. Pareto Variates,” Comm. in Statistics—Theory and Methods, vol. 35, pp. 395-405, 2006.
[6] A. Rao, K. Lakshminarayanan, S. Surana, R. Karp, and I. Stoica, “Load Balancing in Structured P2P Systems,” Proc. Second Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS '03), Feb. 2003.
[7] B. Godfrey, K. Lakshminarayanan, S. Surana, R. Karp, and I. Stoica, “Load Balancing in Dynamic Structured P2P Systems,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2004.
[8] P.B. Godfrey and I. Stoica, “Heterogeneity and Load Balance in Distributed Hash Tables,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2005.
[9] J. Ledlie and M. Seltzer, “Distributed, Secure Load Balancing with Skew, Heterogeneity, and Churn,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2005.
[10] X. Wang, Y. Zhang, X. Li, and D. Loguinov, “On Zone-Balancing of Peer-to-Peer Networks: Analysis of Random Node Join,” Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS '04, pp. 211-222, June 2004.
[11] B.-G. Chun, F. Dabek, A. Haeberlen, E. Sit, H. Weatherspoon, M.F. Kaashoek, J. Kubiatowicz, and R. Morris, “Efficient Replica Maintenance for Distributed Storage Systems,” Proc. Third Symp. Networked System Design and Implementation (NSDI '06), May 2006.
[12] H. Weatherspoon, “Design and Evaluation of Distributed Wide-Area On-Line Archival Storage Systems,” PhD dissertation, Electrical Eng. and Computer Sciences (EECS) Dept., Univ. of California, Berkeley, Oct. 2006.
[13] M. Laguna, J.P. Kelly, J.L. Gonzalez Velarde, and F. Glover, “Tabu Search for the Multilevel Generalized Assignment Problem,” European J. Operational Research, vol. 82, pp. 176-189, 1995.
[14] M.L. Fisher, R. Jaikumar, and L.N. Van Wassenhove, “A Multiplier Adjustment Method for the Generalized Assignment Problem,” Management Science, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1095-1103, 1986.
[15] G.T. Ross and R.M. Soland, “A Branch and Bound Algorithm for the Generalized Assignment Problem,” Math. Programming, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 91-103, 1975.
[16] M.G. Narciso and L.A.N. Lorena, “Lagrangean/Surrogate Relaxations for the Generalized Assignment Problems,” European J.Operational Research, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 165-177, 1999.
[17] J.A. Diaz and E. Fernandez, “A Tabu Search Heuristic for the Generalized Assignment Problem,” European J. Operational Research, vol. 132, pp. 22-38, 2001.
[18] P.C.H. Chu and J.E. Beasley, “A Genetic Algorithm for the Generalised Assignment Problem,” Computers and Operations Research, vol. 24, pp. 17-23, 1997.
[19] M. Yagiura, T. Yamaguchi, and T. Ibaraki, “A Variable Depth Search Algorithm for the Generalized Assignment Problem,” Meta-Heuristics: Advances and Trends in Local Search Paradigms for Optimization, S. Vosß, S. Martello, I.H. Osman, and C. Roucairol, eds., Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 459-471, 1999.
[20] H.R. Lourenco and D. Serra, “Adaptive Search Heuristics for the Generalized Assignment Problem,” Mathware and Soft Computing, vol. 9, pp. 209-234, 2002.
[21] M. Faloutsos, P. Faloutsos, and C. Faloutsos, “On Power-Law Relationships of the Internet Topology,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '99, pp. 251-262, 1999.
[22] L.A. Adamic, Zipf, Power-Laws, and Pareto—A Ranking Tutorial, rankingranking. html, 2000.
[23] S. Sahni and T. Gonzalez, “P-Complete Approximation Problems,” J. ACM, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 555-565, July 1976.
[24] T. Stutzle and H. Hoos, “The Max-Min Ant System and Local Search for Combinatorial Optimization Problems,” Meta-Heuristics: Advances and Trends in Local Search Paradigms for Optimization, S. Vosß, S. Martello, I.H. Osman, and C. Roucairol, eds., Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 313-329, 1999.
[25] M.G.C. Resende and C.C. Ribeiro, “Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedures,” State-of-the-Art Handbook of Metaheuristics, F.Glover and G. Kochenberger, eds., Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.
[26] M. Dorigo and T. Stützle, Ant Colony Optimization. MIT Press, 2004.
[27] E.W. Weisstein, “Pareto Distribution,” MathWorld—A Wolfram Web Resource, http://mathworld.wolfram.comParetoDistribution. html , 2007.
[28] V. Stemann, “Parallel Balanced Allocations,” Proc. Eighth Ann. ACM Symp. Parallel Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA '96), pp.261-269, 1996.
[29] P. Berenbrink, F. Meyer auf der Heide, and K. Schroder, “Allocating Weighted Jobs in Parallel,” Theory of Computing Systems, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 281-300, 1999.
13 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool