The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.01 - January (2008 vol.19)
pp: 77-92
Due to the lack of stability and reliability in peer-topeer networks, multimedia streaming over peer-to-peer networks represents several fundamental engineering challenges. First, multimedia streaming sessions need to be resilient to volatile network dynamics and node departures that are characteristic in peer-to-peer networks. Second, they need to take full advantage of the existing bandwidth capacities, by minimizing the delivery of redundant content and the need for content reconciliation among peers during streaming. Finally, streaming peers need to be optimally selected to construct high-quality streaming topologies, so that end-to-end latencies are taken into consideration. The original contributions of this paper are two-fold. First, we propose to use a recent coding technique, referred to as rateless codes, to code the multimedia bitstreams before they are transmitted over peer-to-peer links. The use of rateless codes eliminates the requirements of content reconciliation, as well as the risks of delivering redundant content over the network. Rateless codes also help the streaming sessions to adapt to volatile network dynamics. Second, we minimize end-to-end latencies in streaming sessions by optimizing towards a latency-related objective in a linear optimization problem, the solution to which can be efficiently derived in a decentralized and iterative fashion. The validity and effectiveness of our new contributions are demonstrated in extensive experiments in emulated realistic peer-to-peer environments with our rStream implementation.
Distributed networks, distributed applications, peer-to-peer protocol, media streaming
Chuan Wu, Baochun Li, "rStream: Resilient and Optimal Peer-to-Peer Streaming with Rateless Codes", IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol.19, no. 1, pp. 77-92, January 2008, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2007.1119
[1] J. Byers, J. Considine, M. Mitzenmacher, and S. Rost, “Informed Content Delivery across Adaptive Overlay Networks,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '02, Aug. 2002.
[2] X. Zhang, J. Liu, B. Li, and T.P. Yum, “CoolStreaming/DONet: A Data-Driven Overlay Network for Peer-to-Peer Live Media Streaming,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '05, Mar. 2005.
[3] M. Luby, “LT Codes,” Proc. 43rd Symp. Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS '02), Nov. 2002.
[4] A. Shokrollahi, “Raptor Codes,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Information Theory (ISIT '04), June 2004.
[5] P. Maymounkov and D. Mazieres, “Rateless Codes and Big Downloads,” Proc. Second Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS '03), Feb. 2003.
[6] J. Byers, M. Luby, M. Mitzenmacher, and A. Rege, “A Digital Fountain Approach to Reliable Distribution of Bulk Data,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '98, Sept. 1998.
[7] A. Medina, A. Lakhina, I. Matta, and J. Byers, “BRITE: Boston University Representative Internet Topology Generator,” technical report, http://www.cs.bu.edubrite, 2000.
[8] D.A. Tran, K.A. Hua, and T.T. Do, “A Peer-to-Peer Architecture for Media Streaming,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 22, pp.121-133, Jan. 2004.
[9] S. Banerjee, B. Bhattacharjee, and C. Kommareddy, “Scalable Application Layer Multicast,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '02, Aug. 2002.
[10] Z. Li, B. Li, D. Jiang, and L.C. Lau, “On Achieving Optimal Throughput with Network Coding,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '05, Mar. 2005.
[11] C. Wu and B. Li, “Optimal Peer Selection for Minimum-Delay Peer-to-Peer Streaming with Rateless Codes,” Proc. ACM Workshop Advances in Peer-to-Peer Multimedia Streaming (P2PMMS '05) in conjunction with the 13th ACM Int'l Conf. Multimedia (Multimedia '05), Nov. 2005.
[12] D. Bertsekas, Nonlinear Programming. Athena Scientific, 1995.
[13] N.Z. Shor, Minimization Methods for Non-Differentiable Functions. Springer, 1985.
[14] D.P. Bertsekas and D.A. Castanon, “The Auction Algorithm for the Transportation Problem,” Annals of Operations Research, vol. 20, pp. 67-96, 1989.
[15] R.K. Ahuja, T.L. Magnanti, and J.B. Orlin, Network Flows: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications. Prentice Hall, 1993.
[16] D.P. Bertsekas and J.N. Tsitsiklis, Parallel and Distributed Computation: Numerical Methods. Prentice Hall, 1989.
[17] D.P. Bertsekas and R. Gallager, Data Networks, second ed. Prentice Hall, 1992.
[18] H.D. Sherali and G. Choi, “Recovery of Primal Solutions When Using Subgradient Optimization Methods to Solve Lagrangian Duals of Linear Programs,” Operations Research Letter, vol. 19, pp.105-113, 1996.
[19] All-Sites-Pings for PlanetLab, http://ping.ececs.uc.eduping/, 2007.
[20] J. Li, “PeerStreaming: A Practical Receiver-Driven Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming System,” Technical Report MSR-TR-2004-101, Microsoft Research, Sept. 2004.
[21] H. Deshpande, M. Bawa, and H. Garcia-Molina, “Streaming Live Media over a Peer-to-Peer Network,” Technical Report 2001-20, Stanford Database Group, Aug. 2001.
[22] D.A. Tran, K.A. Hua, and T. Do, “ZIGZAG: An Efficient Peer-to-Peer Scheme for Media Streaming,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '03, Mar. 2003.
[23] V.N. Padmanabhan, H.J. Wang, P.A. Chow, and K. Sripanidkulchai, “Distributing Streaming Media Content Using Cooperative Networking,” Proc. 12th Int'l Workshop Network and Operating System Support for Digital Audio and Video (NOSSDAV '02), May 2002.
[24] M. Castro, P. Druschel, A.-M. Kermarrec, A. Nandi, A. Rowstron, and A. Singh, “SplitStream: High-Bandwidth Multicast in Cooperative Environments,” Proc. 19th ACM Symp. Operating Systems Principles (SOSP '03), Oct. 2003.
[25] V. Pai, K. Kumar, K. Tamilmani, V. Sambamurthy, and A.E. Mohr, “Chainsaw: Eliminating Trees from Overlay Multicast,” Proc. Fourth Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS '05), Feb. 2005.
[26] M. Zhang, L. Zhao, Y. Tang, J. Luo, and S. Yang, “Large-Scale Live Media Streaming over Peer-to-Peer Networks through Global Internet,” Proc. 13th ACM Int'l Conf. Multimedia (Multimedia '05), Nov. 2005.
[27] M. Hefeeda, A. Habib, B. Botev, D. Xu, and B. Bhargava, “PROMISE: Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming Using CollectCast,” Proc. 11th ACM Int'l Conf. Multimedia (Multimedia '03), Nov. 2003.
[28] C. Huang, R. Janakiraman, and L. Xu, “Loss-Resilient On-Demand Media Streaming Using Priority Encoding,” Proc. 12th ACM Int'l Conf. Multimedia (Multimedia '04), Oct. 2004.
[29] M. Adler, R. Kumar, K.W. Ross, D. Rubenstein, T. Suel, and D.D. Yao, “Optimal Peer Selection for P2P Downloading and Streaming,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '05, Mar. 2005.
13 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool