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In this paper, we propose a new data gathering mechanism for large scale multihop sensor networks. A mobile data observer, called SenCar, which could be a mobile robot or a vehicle equipped with a powerful transceiver and battery, works like a mobile base station in the network. SenCar starts the data gathering tour periodically from the static data processing center, traverses the entire sensor network, gathers the data from sensors while moving, returns to the starting point, and finally uploads data to the data processing center. Unlike SenCar, sensors in the network are static, and can be made very simple and inexpensive. They upload sensed data to SenCar when SenCar moves close to them. Since sensors can only communicate with others within a very limited range, packets from some sensors may need multihop relays to reach SenCar. We first show that the moving path of SenCar can greatly affect network lifetime. We then present heuristic algorithms for planning the moving path/circle of SenCar and balancing traffic load in the network. We show that by driving SenCar along a better path and balancing the traffic load from sensors to SenCar, network lifetime can be prolonged significantly. Our moving planning algorithm can be used in both connected networks and disconnected networks. In addition, SenCar can avoid obstacles while moving. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed data gathering mechanism can prolong network lifetime significantly compared to a network which has only a static observer, or a network in which mobile observer can only move along straight lines.
SenCar, wireless sensor networks, data gathering, load balancing

Y. Yang and M. Ma, "SenCar: An Energy-Efficient Data Gathering Mechanism for Large-Scale Multihop Sensor Networks," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. , pp. 1476-1488, 2007.
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