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<p><b>Abstract</b>—The <it>Gemini</it> interconnect is a dual technology (optical and electrical) interconnection network designed for use in tightly-coupled multicomputer systems. It consists of a circuit-switched optical data path in parallel with a packet-switched electrical control/data path. The optical path is used for transmission of long data messages and the electrical path is used for switch control and transmission of short data messages. This paper describes the architecture of the interconnection network and related communications protocols. Fairness issues associated with network operation are addressed and a discrete-event simulation model of the entire system is described. Network performance characteristics derived from the simulation model are presented. The results show significant performance benefits when using virtual output queuing and quantify the tradeoffs between throughput and fairness in the system.</p>
Optical communication, multiprocessor interconnection networks, fair scheduling protocols, performance evaluation.

M. A. Franklin, R. D. Chamberlain and C. S. Baw, "Gemini: An Optical Interconnection Network for Parallel Processing," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 13, no. , pp. 1038-1055, 2002.
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