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<p>The performance of a mutual exclusion algorithm is measured by the number of messages exchanged per critical section execution and the delay between successive executions of the critical section. There is a message complexity and synchronization delay trade-off in mutual exclusion algorithms. The Lamport algorithm and the Ricart-Agrawal algorithm both have a synchronization delay of T (T is the average message delay), but their message complexity is O(N). Maekawa's algorithm reduces the message complexity to O(\sqrt{N}); however, it increases the synchronization delay to 2T. After Maekawa's algorithm, many quorum-based mutual exclusion algorithms have been proposed to reduce the message complexity or the increase the resiliency to site and communication link failures. Since these algorithms are Maekawa-type algorithms, they also suffer from the long synchronization delay. In this paper, we propose a delay-optimal quorum-based mutual exclusion algorithm which reduces the synchronization delay to T and still has a low message complexity of O(K) (K is the size of the quorum which can be as low as \log N). A correctness proof and a detailed performance analysis are provided.</p>
Quorum, synchronization delay, distributed mutual exclusion, fault tolerance

M. Singhal and G. Cao, "A Delay-Optimal Quorum-Based Mutual Exclusion Algorithm for Distributed Systems," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 12, no. , pp. 1256-1268, 2001.
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