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<p><b>Abstract</b>—In a localized routing algorithm, each node makes forwarding decisions solely based on the position of itself, its neighbors, and its destination. In distance, progress, and direction-based approaches (reported in the literature), when node <it>A</it> wants to send or forward message <it>m</it> to destination node <it>D,</it> it forwards <it>m</it> to its neighbor <it>C</it> which is closest to <it>D</it> (has best progress toward <it>D</it>, whose direction is closest to the direction of <it>D</it>, respectively) among all neighbors of <it>A.</it> The same procedure is repeated until <it>D,</it> if possible, is eventually reached. The algorithms are referred to as <it>GEDIR, MFR, </it>and <it>DIR</it> when a common failure criterion is introduced: The algorithm stops if the best choice for the current node is the node from which the message came. We propose 2-hop <it>GEDIR, DIR,</it> and <it>MFR</it> methods in which node <it>A</it> selects the best candidate node <it>C</it> among its 1-hop and 2-hop neighbors according to the corresponding criterion and forwards <it>m</it> to its best 1-hop neighbor among joint neighbors of <it>A</it> and <it>C</it>. We then propose <it>flooding GEDIR </it>and<it> MFR</it> and hybrid single-path/flooding <it>GEDIR </it>and<it> MFR</it> methods which are the first localized algorithms (other than full flooding) to guarantee the message delivery (in a collision-free environment). We show that the directional routing methods are not loop-free, while the<it> GEDIR</it> and <it>MFR</it>-based methods are inherently loop free. The simulation experiments, with static random graphs, show that <it>GEDIR</it> and <it>MFR</it> have similar success rates, which is low for low degree graphs and high for high degree ones. When successful, their hop counts are near the performance of the shortest path algorithm. Hybrid single-path/flooding <it>GEDIR</it> and <it>MFR </it>methods have low communication overheads. The results are also confirmed by experiments with moving nodes and MAC layer.</p>
Routing, wireless networks, distributed algorithms, shortest path, broadcasting.

I. Stojmenovic and X. Lin, "Loop-Free Hybrid Single-Path/Flooding Routing Algorithms with Guaranteed Delivery for Wireless Networks," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 12, no. , pp. 1023-1032, 2001.
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