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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Recursive Diagonal Torus (RDT), a class of interconnection network is proposed for massively parallel computers with up to <tmath>$2^{16}$</tmath> nodes. By making the best use of a recursively structured diagonal mesh (torus) connection, the RDT has a smaller diameter (e.g., it is 11 for <tmath>$2^{16}$</tmath> nodes) with a smaller number of links per node (i.e., 8 links per node) than those of the hypercube. A simple routing algorithm, called vector routing, which is near-optimal and easy to implement is also proposed. Although the congestion on upper rank tori sometimes degrades the performance under the random traffic, the RDT provides much better performance than that of a 2D/3D torus in most cases and, under hot spot traffic, the RDT provides much better performance than that of a 2D/3D/4D torus. The RDT router chip which provides a message multicast for maintaining cache consistency is available. Using the <tmath>$0.5\mu m$</tmath> BiCMOS SOG technology, versatile functions, including hierarchical multicasting, combining acknowledge packets, shooting down/restart mechanism, and time-out/setup mechanisms, work at a 60MHz clock rate.</p>
Interconnection network, massively parallel computer, routing algorithm, router chip, mesh network, torus network, message multicast.

Y. Yang, T. Sueyoshi, H. Nishi, H. Amano, A. Funahashi and A. Jouraku, "Recursive Diagonal Torus: An Interconnection Network for Massively Parallel Computers," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 12, no. , pp. 701-715, 2001.
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