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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Scheduling jobs on the IBM SP2 system and many other distributed-memory MPPs is usually done by giving each job a partition of the machine for its exclusive use. Allocating such partitions in the order in which the jobs arrive (FCFS scheduling) is fair and predictable, but suffers from severe fragmentation, leading to low utilization. This situation led to the development of the EASY scheduler which uses aggressive backfilling: Small jobs are moved ahead to fill in holes in the schedule, provided they do not delay the <it>first</it> job in the queue. We compare this approach with a more conservative approach in which small jobs move ahead only if they do not delay <it>any</it> job in the queue and show that the relative performance of the two schemes depends on the workload: For workloads typical on SP2 systems, the aggressive approach is indeed better, but, for other workloads, both algorithms are similar. In addition, we study the sensitivity of backfilling to the accuracy of the runtime estimates provided by the users and find a very surprising result: Backfilling actually works better when users overestimate the runtime by a substantial factor.</p>
Parallel job scheduling, backfilling, runtime estimates, workload modeling, performance metrics.

A. W. Mu'alem and D. G. Feitelson, "Utilization, Predictability, Workloads, and User Runtime Estimates in Scheduling the IBM SP2 with Backfilling," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 12, no. , pp. 529-543, 2001.
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