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<p><b>Abstract</b>—This paper describes a distributed algorithm that implements the abstraction of <it>e-Transaction</it>: a transaction that executes <it>exactly-once</it> despite failures. Our algorithm is based on an <it>asynchronous</it> replication scheme that generalizes well-known <it>active-replication</it> and <it>primary-backup</it> schemes. We devised the algorithm with a three-tier architecture in mind: the end-user interacts with front-end clients (e.g., browsers) that invoke middle-tier application servers (e.g., web servers) to access back-end databases. The algorithm preserves the three-tier nature of the architecture and introduces a very acceptable overhead with respect to unreliable solutions.</p>
End-to-end reliability, exactly-once semantics, transactions, replication, fault-tolerance.

S. Frølund and R. Guerraoui, "Implementing E-Transactions with Asynchronous Replication," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 12, no. , pp. 133-146, 2001.
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