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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Networks of workstations are becoming increasingly popular as a cost-effective alternative to parallel computers. Typically, these networks connect workstations using irregular topologies, providing the wiring flexibility, scalability, and incremental expansion capability required in this environment. Recently, we proposed two methodologies for the design of adaptive routing algorithms for networks with irregular topology, as well as fully adaptive routing algorithms for these networks. These algorithms increase throughput considerably with respect to previously existing ones, but require the use of at least two virtual channels. In this paper, we propose a very efficient flow control protocol to support virtual channels when link wires are very long and/or have different lengths. This flow control protocol relies on the use of channel pipelining and control flits. Control traffic is minimized by assigning physical bandwidth to virtual channels until the corresponding message blocks or it is completely transmitted. Simulation results show that this flow control protocol performs as efficiently as an ideal network with short wires and flit-by-flit multiplexing. The effect of additional virtual channels per physical channel has also been studied, revealing that the optimal number of virtual channels varies with network size. The use of virtual channel priorities is also analyzed. The proposed flow control protocol may increase short message latency, due to long messages monopolizing channels and hindering the progress of short messages. Therefore, we have analyzed the impact of limiting the number of flits (block size) that a virtual channel may forward once it gets the link. Simulation results show that limiting the maximum block size causes the overall network performance to decrease.</p>
Networks of workstations, irregular topology, wormhole switching, virtual channels, flow control, block multiplexing, channel pipelining.

J. Duato and F. Silla, "On the Use of Virtual Channels in Networks of Workstations with Irregular Topology," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 11, no. , pp. 813-828, 2000.
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