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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Time Warp is an optimistic protocol for synchronizing parallel discrete event simulations. To achieve performance in a multiuser network of workstation (NOW) environment, Time Warp must continue to operate efficiently in the presence of external workloads caused by other users, processor heterogeneity, and irregular internal workloads caused by the simulation model. However, these performance problems can cause a Time Warp program to become grossly unbalanced, resulting in slower execution. The key observation asserted in this article is that each of these performance problems, while different in source, has a similar manifestation. For a Time Warp program to be balanced, the amount of wall clock time necessary to advance an LP one unit of simulation time should be about the same for all LPs. Using this observation, we devise a single algorithm that mitigates these performance problems and enables the “background” execution of Time Warp programs on heterogeneous distributed computing platforms in the presence of external as well as irregular internal workloads.</p>
Discrete event simulation, distributed simulation, network of workstations (NOW), time warp, dynamic load balancing.

C. D. Carothers and R. M. Fujimoto, "Efficient Execution of Time Warp Programs on Heterogeneous, NOW Platforms," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 11, no. , pp. 299-317, 2000.
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