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<p><b>Abstract</b>—This paper presents a software-based approach to fault-tolerant routing in networks using wormhole or virtual cut-through switching. When a message encounters a faulty output link, it is removed from the network by the local router and delivered to the messaging layer of the local node's operating system. The message passing software can reroute this message, possibly along nonminimal paths. Alternatively, the message may be addressed to an intermediate node, which will forward the message to the destination. A message may encounter multiple faults and pass through multiple intermediate nodes. The proposed techniques are applicable to both obliviously and adaptively routed networks. The techniques are specifically targeted toward commercial multiprocessors where the mean time to repair (MTTR) is much smaller than the mean time between router failures (MTBF), i.e., it is sufficient to tolerate a maximum of three failures. This paper presents requirements for buffer management, deadlock freedom, and livelock freedom. Simulation results are presented to evaluate the degradation in latency and throughput as a function of the number and distribution of faults. There are several advantages of such an approach. Router designs are minimally impacted, and thus remain compact and fast. Only messages that encounter faulty components are affected, while the machine is ensured of continued operation until the faulty components can be replaced. The technique leverages existing network technology, and the concepts are portable across evolving switch and router designs. Therefore, we feel that the technique is a good candidate for incorporation into the next generation of multiprocessor networks.</p>
E-cube routing, oblivious routing, adaptive routing, wormhole switching, virtual cut-through switching, fault tolerance, interconnection networks, multiprocessors, deadlock freedom, livelock freedom.

Y. Suh, S. Yalamanchili, J. Duato and B. V. Dao, "Software-Based Rerouting for Fault-Tolerant Pipelined Communication," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 11, no. , pp. 193-211, 2000.
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