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<p><b>Abstract</b>—The Time Warp distributed simulation algorithm uses checkpointing to save process states after certain event executions for later recovery at the time of a rollback. Two main techniques have been used for checkpointing: periodic state saving and incremental state saving. The former technique introduces large overheads in reconstructing a desired state by coasting forward from an earlier checkpointed state if the computational granularity is large. The latter technique also has large overheads in applications with large rollback distances. A hybrid checkpointing technique is proposed which uses both periodic and incremental state saving simultaneously in such a way that it reduces checkpointing time overheads. A detailed analytical model is developed for the hybrid technique, and comparisons are made using similar analytical models with periodic and incremental state saving techniques. Results show that when the system parameters are chosen to represent large and complex simulated systems, the hybrid approach has less checkpointing time overhead than the other two techniques.</p>
Time Warp algorithm, periodic checkpointing, incremental state saving, hybrid state saving, parallel and distributed simulation.

H. M. Soliman and A. S. Elmaghraby, "An Analytical Model for Hybrid Checkpointing in Time Warp Distributed Simulation," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 9, no. , pp. 947-951, 1998.
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