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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Most machines of the last generation of distributed memory parallel computers possess specific <it>routers</it> which are used to exchange messages between nonneighboring nodes in the network. Among the several technologies, <it>wormhole</it> routing is usually preferred because it allows low channel-setup time and reduces the dependency between latency and internode distance. However, wormhole routing is very susceptible to deadlock because messages are allowed to hold many resources while requesting others. Therefore, designing deadlock-free routing algorithms using few hardware facilities is a major problem for wormhole-routed networks. In this paper, we describe a general theoretical framework for the study of deadlock-free routing functions. We give a general definition of what can be a routing function. This definition captures many specific definitions of the literature (e.g., <it>vertex-dependent</it>, <it>input-dependent</it>, <it>source-dependent</it>, <it>path-dependent</it>, etc.). Using our definition, we give a necessary and sufficient condition which characterizes deadlock-free routing functions. Our theory embraces, at a high level, most of the theories related to deadlock avoidance in wormhole-routed networks previously derived in the literature. In particular, it applies not only to one-to-one routing, but also to one-to-many routing. The latter paradigm is used to solve the multicast problem with the path-based or tree-based facility.</p>
Routing, wormhole, deadlock, multicast.
Pierre Fraigniaud, Eric Fleury, "A General Theory for Deadlock Avoidance in Wormhole-Routed Networks", IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 9, no. , pp. 626-638, July 1998, doi:10.1109/71.707539
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