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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Instruction fetching is critical to the performance of a superscalar microprocessor. We develop a mathematical model for three different cache techniques and evaluate its performance both in theory and in simulation using the SPEC95 suite of benchmarks. In all the techniques, the fetching performance is dramatically lower than ideal expectations. To help remedy the situation, we also evaluate its performance using prefetching. Nevertheless, fetching performance is fundamentally limited by control transfers. To solve this problem, we introduce a new fetching mechanism called a dual branch target buffer. The dual branch target buffer enables fetching performance to leap beyond the limitation imposed by conventional methods and achieve a high instruction fetching rate.</p>
Computer architecture, instruction fetching, superscalar microprocessor, performance analysis, branch target buffer.

N. Bagherzadeh and S. Wallace, "Modeled and Measured Instruction Fetching Performance for Superscalar Microprocessors," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 9, no. , pp. 570-578, 1998.
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