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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Distributed sparing is a method to improve the performance of RAID5 disk arrays with respect to a dedicated sparing system with <it>N</it> + 2 disks (including the spare disk), since it utilizes the bandwidth of all <it>N</it> + 2 disks. We analyze the performance of RAID5 with distributed sparing in normal mode, degraded mode, and rebuild mode in an OLTP environment, which implies small reads and writes. The analysis in normal mode uses an <it>M</it>/<it>G</it>/1 queuing model, which takes into account the components of disk service time. In degraded mode, a low-cost approximate method is developed to estimate the mean response time of fork-join requests resulting from accesses to recreate lost data on the failed disk. Rebuild mode performance is analyzed by considering an <it>M</it>/<it>G</it>/1 vacationing server model with multiple vacations of different types to take into account differences in processing requirements for reading the first and subsequent tracks. An iterative solution method is used to estimate the mean response time of disk requests, as well as the time to read each disk, which is shown to be quite accurate through validation against simulation results. We next compare RAID5 performance in a system 1) without a cache; 2) with a cache; and 3) with a nonvolatile storage (NVS) cache. The last configuration, in addition to improved read response time due to cache hits, provides a fast-write capability, such that dirty blocks can be destaged asynchronously and at a lower priority than read requests, resulting in an improvement in read response time. The small write penalty is also reduced due to the possibility of repeated writes to dirty blocks in the cache and by taking advantage of disk geometry to efficiently destage multiple blocks at a time.</p>
RAID5 disk arrays, dedicated sparing, distributed sparing, disk failures, fault-tolerance, operation in degraded mode, rebuild processing, striping unit, small-write syndrome, disk cache, nonvolatile storage, fast writes, disk zoning, performance analysis, queuing theory, M/G/1 queues, fork-join synchronization, vacationing server model, disk response time, rebuild time, nonpreemptive and preemptive priority queuing.

J. Menon and A. Thomasian, "RAID5 Performance with Distributed Sparing," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 8, no. , pp. 640-657, 1997.
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