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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Simulated annealing is a general-purpose optimization technique capable of finding an optimal or near-optimal solution in various applications. However, the long execution time required for a good quality solution has been a major drawback in practice. Extensive studies have been carried out to develop parallel algorithms for simulated annealing. Most of them were not very successful, mainly because multiple processing elements (PEs) were required to follow a single Markov chain and, therefore, only a limited parallelism was exploited. In this paper, we propose new parallel simulated annealing algorithms which allow multiple Markov chains to be traced simultaneously by PEs which may communicate with each other. We have considered both synchronous and asynchronous implementations of the algorithms. Their performance has been analyzed in detail and also verified by extensive experimental results. It has been shown that for graph partitioning the proposed parallel simulated annealing schemes can find a solution of equivalent (or even better) quality up to an order of magnitude faster than the conventional parallel schemes. Among the proposed schemes, the one where PEs exchange information dynamically (not with a fixed period) performs best.</p>
Asynchronous communication, graph partitioning, multiple Markov chains, parallel algorithm, simulated annealing, solution quality, speed-up.

S. Lee and K. G. Lee, "Synchronous and Asynchronous Parallel Simulated Annealing with Multiple Markov Chains," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 7, no. , pp. 993-1008, 1996.
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