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<p><it>Abstract—</it>Consistent global snapshots are important in many distributed applications. We prove the exact conditions for an arbitrary checkpoint, or a set of checkpoints, to belong to a consistent global snapshot, a previously open problem. To describe the conditions, we introduce a generalization of Lamport's happened-before relation called a <it>zigzag path</it>.</p><p><it>Index Terms—</it>Causality, global checkpoints, distributed systems, consistent global states, Lamport's happened-before relation.</p>

J. Xu and R. H. Netzer, "Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Consistent Global Snapshots," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 6, no. , pp. 165-169, 1995.
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