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<p>The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is one of the most suitable iterative methods for positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction; however, it requires a long computation time and an enormous amount of memory space. To overcome these problems, we present two classes of highly efficient parallelization schemes: homogeneous and inhomogeneous partitionings. The essential difference between these two classes is that the inhomogeneous partitioning schemes may partially overlap the communication with computation by deliberate exploitation of the inherent data access pattern with a multiple-ring communication pattern. In theory, the inhomogeneous partitioning schemes may outperform the homogeneous partitioning schemes. However, the latter require a simpler communication pattern. In an attempt to estimate the achievable performance and to analyze the performance degradation factors without actual implementation, we have derived efficiency prediction formulas for closely estimating the performance for the proposed parallelization schemes. We propose new integration and broadcasting algorithms for hypercube, ring, and n-D mesh topologies, which are more efficient than the conventional algorithms when the link setup time is relatively negligible. The concept of the proposed task and data partitioning schemes, the integration and broadcasting algorithms, and the efficiency estimation methods can be applied to many other problems that are rich in data parallelism, but without balanced exclusive partitioning.</p>
Index Termsradioisotope scanning and imaging; iterative methods; optimisation; parallel algorithms; image reconstruction; performance evaluation; parallelization; expectation maximization algorithm; EM algorithm; PET image reconstruction; iterative methods; positron emission tomography; computation time; memory space; homogeneous partitioning; inhomogeneous partitioning; communication/computation overlap; inherent data access pattern; multiple-ring communication pattern; achievable performance estimation; performance degradation factors; efficiency prediction formulas; integration algorithms; broadcasting algorithms; hypercube topology; ring topology; n-dimensional mesh topology; link setup time

S. Lee and C. Chen, "On Parallelizing the EM Algorithm for PET Image Reconstruction," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 5, no. , pp. 860-873, 1994.
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