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<p>With all of the salient features of hypercubes, the cube-connected cycles (CCC)structure is an attractive parallel computation network suited for very large scaleintegration (VLSI) implementation because of its layout regularity. Unfortunately, theclassical CCC structure tends to suffer from considerable performance degradation in thepresence of faults. The authors deal with a fault-tolerant CCC structure obtained byincorporating a spare PE in each cycle and by adding extra links among PE's to realizedimensional substitutes for failed PE's in the immediate lower dimension. A unique feature of this design lies in that a faulty PE and its laterally connected PE are always replaced at the same time by their immediate vertical successor pair, achieving pairwise substitution to elegantly maintain the rigid full CCC structure after faulty PE's arise. The proposed structure improves reliability substantially without incurring large overhead in layout area. This design is compared with earlier fault-tolerant CCC designs in terms of normalized reliability, which takes area overhead into account. An extension to this fault-tolerant structure is also discussed.</p>
Index Termsmultiprocessor interconnection networks; fault tolerant computing; VLSI; fault tolerance;cube-connected cycles architecture; CCC; fault-tolerant CCC structure; fault-tolerantstructure; performance degradation; layout area; reconfiguration; reliability analysis; VLSI layout

P. Chuang and N. Tzeng, "A Pairwise Substitutional Fault Tolerance Technique for the Cube-Connected Cycles Architecture," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 5, no. , pp. 433-438, 1994.
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