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<p>Fault-tolerant computer systems have redundant paths connecting their components.Given these paths, it is possible to use aggressive techniques to reduce the averagevalue and variability of the response time for short, critical messages. One technique is tosend a copy of a packet over an alternate path before it is known whether the first copyfailed or was delayed. A second technique is to split a single stream of packets overmultiple paths. The authors analyze both approaches and show that they can providesignificant improvements over conventional, conservative mechanisms.</p>
Index Termsfault tolerant computing; redundancy; message passing; packet switching; shortmessages; redundant paths; fault-tolerant computer systems; response time; packets;multiple paths; deadlines; real time communications; replicated transmissions

D. Barbará, B. Kao and H. Garcia-Molina, "Aggressive Transmissions of Short Messages Over Redundant Paths," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 5, no. , pp. 102-109, 1994.
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