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The authors study the instrumentation perturbations of software event tracing on the Alliant FX/80 vector multiprocessor in sequential, vector, concurrent, and vector-concurrent modes. Based on experimental data, they derive a perturbation model that can approximate true performance from instrumented execution. They analyze the effects of instrumentation coverage, (i.e., the ratio of instrumented to executed statements), source level instrumentation, and hardware interactions. The results show that perturbations in execution times for complete trace instrumentations can exceed three orders of magnitude. With appropriate models of performance perturbation, these perturbations in execution time can be reduced to less than 20% while retaining the additional information from detailed traces. In general, it is concluded that it is possible to characterize perturbations through simple models. This permits more detailed, accurate instrumentation than traditionally believed possible.
Index Termsperformance measurement; perturbation analysis; instrumentation perturbations; softwareevent tracing; Alliant FX/80 vector multiprocessor; true performance; instrumentedexecution; instrumentation coverage; source level instrumentation; hardwareinteractions; parallel programming; performance evaluation; perturbation theory

D. Reed, H. Wijshoff and A. Malony, "Performance Measurement Intrusion and Perturbation Analysis," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 3, no. , pp. 433-450, 1992.
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