The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.08 - August (2010 vol.59)
pp: 1076-1090
Xiaojing Xiang , Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, USA
Xin Wang , Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA
Yuanyuan Yang , Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA
There are increasing interest and big challenges in designing a scalable and robust multicast routing protocol in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) due to the difficulty in group membership management, multicast packet forwarding, and the maintenance of multicast structure over the dynamic network topology for a large group size or network size. In this paper, we propose a novel Robust and Scalable Geographic Multicast Protocol (RSGM). Several virtual architectures are used in the protocol without need of maintaining state information for more robust and scalable membership management and packet forwarding in the presence of high network dynamics due to unstable wireless channels and node movements. Specifically, scalable and efficient group membership management is performed through a virtual-zone-based structure, and the location service for group members is integrated with the membership management. Both the control messages and data packets are forwarded along efficient tree-like paths, but there is no need to explicitly create and actively maintain a tree structure. The stateless virtual-tree-based structures significantly reduce the tree management overhead, support more efficient transmissions, and make the transmissions much more robust to dynamics. Geographic forwarding is used to achieve further scalability and robustness. To avoid periodic flooding of the source information throughout the network, an efficient source tracking mechanism is designed. Furthermore, we handle the empty-zone problem faced by most zone-based routing protocols. We have studied the protocol performance by performing both quantitative analysis and extensive simulations. Our results demonstrate that RSGM can scale to a large group size and a large network size, and can more efficiently support multiple multicast groups in the network. Compared to existing protocols ODMRP and SPBM, RSGM achieves a significantly higher delivery ratio under all circumstances, with different moving speeds, node densities, group sizes, number of groups, and network sizes. RSGM also has the minimum control overhead and joining delay.
Multicast routing, geographic multicast, mobile computing, wireless networks, mobile ad hoc networks, geographic routing, location, scalable, robust.
Xiaojing Xiang, Xin Wang, Yuanyuan Yang, "Stateless Multicasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol.59, no. 8, pp. 1076-1090, August 2010, doi:10.1109/TC.2010.102
[1] W. Wu, J. Cao, J. Yang, and M. Raynal, "Design and Performance Evaluation of Efficient Consensus Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 1055-1070, Aug. 2007.
[2] R. Beraldi and R. Baldoni, "A Caching Scheme for Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks and Its Application to ZRP," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 1051-1062, Aug. 2003.
[3] Y.C. Tseng, S.Y. Ni, and E.Y. Shih, "Adaptive Approaches to Relieving Broadcast Storms in a Wireless Multihop Mobile Ad Hoc Network," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 545-557, May 2003.
[4] C.-C. Chiang, M. Gerla, and L. Zhang, "Forwarding Group Multicast Protocol (FGMP) for Multihop, Mobile Wireless Networks," Cluster Computing, special issue on mobile computing, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 187-196, 1998.
[5] S. Wu and K.S. Candan, "GMP: Distributed Geographic Multicast Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. 26th IEEE Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '06), 2006.
[6] S.M. Das, H. Pucha, and Y.C. Hu, "Distributed Hashing for Scalable Multicast in Wireless Ad Hoc Network," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 347-362, Mar. 2008.
[7] J. Yoon, M. Liu, and B. Noble, "Random Waypoint Considered Harmful," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '03, vol. 2, no. 4, Apr. 2003.
[8] L. Ji and M.S. Corson, "Differential Destination Multicast: A MANET Multicast Routing Protocol for Small Groups," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '01, Apr. 2001.
[9] I. Abraham, D. Dolev, and D. Malkhi, "LLS: A Locality Aware Location Service for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. Workshop Discrete Algorithms and Methods for MOBILE Computing and Comm. (DialM), 2004.
[10] J. Li, J. Jannotti, D.S.J.D. Couto, D.R. Karger, and R. Morris, "A Scalable Location Service for Geographic Ad Hoc Routing," Proc. MOBICOM, pp. 120-130, 2000.
[11] J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves and E. Madruga, "The Core-Assisted Mesh Protocol," IEEE J. on Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1380-1394, Aug. 1999.
[12] M. Gerla, S.J. Lee, and W. Su, "On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP) for Ad Hoc Networks," Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-odmrp-02.txt, 2000.
[13] L. Ji and M.S. Corson, "A Lightweight Adaptive Multicast Algorithm," Proc. GLOBECOM, pp. 1036-1042, 1998.
[14] B. Karp and H.T. Kung, "Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks," Proc. MOBICOM, pp. 243-254, Aug. 2000.
[15] S. Lee, W. Su, J. Hsu, M. Gerla, and R. Bagrodia, "A Performance Comparison Study of Ad Hoc Wireless Multicast Protocols," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2000.
[16] S. Basagni, I. Chlamtac, and V.R. Syrotiuk, "Location Aware, Dependable Multicast for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Computer Networks, vol. 36, nos. 5/6, pp. 659-670, Aug. 2001.
[17] K. Chen and K. Nahrstedt, "Effective Location-Guided Tree Construction Algorithms for Small Group Multicast in MANET," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1180-1189, 2002.
[18] M. Mauve, H. Fubler, J. Widmer, and T. Lang, "Position-Based Multicast Routing for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks," Proc. ACM MOBIHOC, Poster Section, June 2003.
[19] E.M. Royer and C.E. Perkins, "Multicast Operation of the Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol," Proc. MOBICOM, pp. 207-218, Aug. 1999.
[20] M. Transier, H. Fubler, J. Widmer, M. Mauve, and W. Effelsberg, "Scalable Position-Based Multicast for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks," Proc. First Int'l Workshop Broadband Wireless Multimedia: Algorithms, Architectures and Applications (BroadWim '04), Oct. 2004.
[21] M. Transier, H. Fubler, J. Widmer, M. Mauve, and W. Effelsberg, "A Hierarchical Approach to Position-Based Multicast for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks," Technical Report TR-04-002, Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of Mannheim, Jan. 2004.
[22] UCLA Parallel Computing Laboratory, GloMoSim, http://pcl.cs. /, 2010.
[23] S-C.M. Woo and S. Singh, "Scalable Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks," Wireless Networks, vol. 7, pp. 513-529, 2001.
[24] C. Wu, Y. Tay, and C.-K. Toh, "Ad Hoc Multicast Routing Protocol Utilizing Increasing Id-Numbers (AMRIS) Functional Specification," Internet Draft, Nov. 1998.
[25] X. Zhang and L. Jacob, "Multicast Zone Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," Proc. Local Computer Networks (LCN '03), Oct. 2003.
[26] X. Xiang, Z. Zhou, and X. Wang, "Self-Adaptive On Demand Geographic Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, May 2007.
[27] C. Gui and P. Mohapatra, "Scalable Multicasting for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2004.
17 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool