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Issue No. 08 - August (2010 vol. 59)
ISSN: 0018-9340
pp: 1047-1062
Jaejin Lee , Seoul National University, Seoul
Choonki Jang , Seoul National University, Seoul
Heonshik Shin , Seoul National University, Seoul
Sang Lyul Min , Seoul National University, Seoul
Bernhard Egger , Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Giheung
Seungkyun Kim , Seoul National University, Seoul
ABSTRACT
We propose a code scratchpad memory (SPM) management technique with demand paging for embedded systems that have no memory management unit. Based on profiling information, a postpass optimizer analyzes and optimizes application binaries in a fully automated process. It classifies the code of the application including libraries into three classes based on a mixed integer linear programming formulation: External code is executed directly from the external memory. Pinned code is loaded into the SPM when the application starts and stays in the SPM. Paged code is loaded into/unloaded from the SPM on demand. We evaluate the proposed technique by running 14 embedded applications both on a cycle-accurate ARM processor simulator and an ARM1136JF-S core. On the simulator, the reference case, a four-way set-associative cache, is compared to a direct-mapped cache and an SPM of comparable die area. On average, we observe an improvement of 12 percent in runtime performance and a 21 percent reduction in energy consumption. On the ARM11 board, the reference case run on the 16-KB four-way set-associative cache is compared to the demand paging solution on the 16-KB SPM, optionally supported by the cache. The measured results show both a runtime performance improvement and a reduction of the energy consumption by 23 percent, on average.
INDEX TERMS
Compilers, postpass optimization, code placement, demand paging, scratchpad memory, embedded systems.
CITATION
Jaejin Lee, Choonki Jang, Heonshik Shin, Sang Lyul Min, Bernhard Egger, Seungkyun Kim, "Scratchpad Memory Management Techniques for Code in Embedded Systems without an MMU", IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 59, no. , pp. 1047-1062, August 2010, doi:10.1109/TC.2009.188
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