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Issue No. 04 - April (2010 vol. 59)
ISSN: 0018-9340
pp: 478-491
Clemens Moser , ETH Zurich, Zurich
Lothar Thiele , ETH Zurich, Zurich
Davide Brunelli , University of Bologna, Bologna
Luca Benini , University of Bologna, Bologna
Recently, there has been a substantial interest in the design of systems that receive their energy from regenerative sources such as solar cells. In contrast to approaches that minimize the power consumption subject to performance constraints, we are concerned with optimizing the performance of an application while respecting the limited and time-varying amount of available power. In this paper, we address power management of, e.g., wireless sensor nodes which receive their energy from solar cells. Based on a prediction of the future available energy, we adapt parameters of the application in order to maximize the utility in a long-term perspective. The paper presents a formal model of the corresponding optimization problem including constraints concerning buffer sizes, timing, and rates. Instead of solving the optimization problem online which may be prohibitively complex in terms of running time and energy consumption, we apply multiparametric programming to precompute the application parameters offline for different environmental conditions and system states. In order to guarantee sustainable operation, we propose a hierarchical software design which comprises a worst-case prediction of the incoming energy. As a further contribution, we suggest a new method for approximate multiparametric linear programming which substantially lowers the computational demand and memory requirement of the embedded software. Our approaches are evaluated using long-term measurements of solar energy in an outdoor environment.
Embedded systems, energy harvesting, power management, multiparametric linear programming.

L. Thiele, C. Moser, L. Benini and D. Brunelli, "Adaptive Power Management for Environmentally Powered Systems," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 59, no. , pp. 478-491, 2009.
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