The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.05 - May (2009 vol.58)
pp: 577-590
Pai-Han Huang , University of Southern California, Los Angeles
Maulik Desai , Columbia University
Xiaofan Qiu , Texas Instruments Inc.
Bhaskar Krishnamachari , University of Southern California, Los Angeles
We analyze the single and multihop performance of time synchronization mechanisms for challenging environments characterized by high propagation delays, low duty-cycle operation, and imprecise clocks, such as underwater acoustic sensor networks. We find that receiver-receiver-based schemes are unsuitable for such environments, and therefore focus primarily on sender-receiver schemes. According to our analysis, a one-way dissemination approach provides good clock skew estimation but poor offset estimation while a two-way exchange approach provides accurate offset estimation but imprecise clock skew estimation. In average, using one-way scheme can result in significant cumulative propagation error over multiple hops, and using two-way can lead to high variance of propagation error. We develop and analyze a hybrid one-way dissemination/two-way exchange technique, and verify the performance of our hybrid scheme through trace-based experiments. The results suggest that this hybrid approach can provide bounded average error propagation in multihop settings and significantly lower variance of propagation error.
Wireless communications, formal models, data communications, protocol verification, sensor networks, algorithm/protocol design and analysis.
Pai-Han Huang, Maulik Desai, Xiaofan Qiu, Bhaskar Krishnamachari, "On the Multihop Performance of Synchronization Mechanisms in High Propagation Delay Networks", IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol.58, no. 5, pp. 577-590, May 2009, doi:10.1109/TC.2008.220
[1] B. Sundararaman, U. Buy, and A.D. Kshemkalyani, “Clock Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 281-323, May 2005.
[2] M. Maroti, B. Kusy, G. Simon, and A. Ledeczi, “The Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol,” Proc. Second ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '04), Nov. 2004.
[3] S. Ganeriwal, R. Kumar, and M.B. Srivastava, “Timing-Sync Protocol for Sensor Networks,” Proc. First ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '03), Nov. 2003.
[4] J. Elson, L. Girod, and D. Estrin, “Fine-Grained Network Time Synchronization Using Reference Broadcasts,” Proc. Fifth Symp. Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI '02), Dec. 2002.
[5] P. Huang and B. Krishnamachari, “Analysis of Existing Approaches and a New Hybrid Strategy for Synchronization in Sensor Networks,” Proc. Third Workshop Embedded Networked Sensors (EmNets '06), May 2006.
[6] S. Ganeriwal, D. Ganesan, M. Hansen, M.B. Srivastava, and D. Estrin, “Rate-Adaptive Time Synchronization for Long-Lived Sensor Networks,” Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS Int'l Conf. Measurement and Modeling in Computer Systems (SIGMETRICS '05), June 2005.
[7] R. Karp, J. Elson, D. Estrin, and S. Shenker, “Optimal and Global Time Synchronization in Sensornets,” Technical Report 0012, UCLA CENS, Apr. 2003.
[8] J. Elson and K. Romer, “Wireless Sensor Networks: A New Regime for Time Synchronization,” Proc. First Workshop Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets '02), Oct. 2002.
[9] F. Sivrikaya and B. Yener, “Time Synchronization in Sensor Networks: A Survey,” IEEE Network, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 45-50, July/Aug. 2004.
[10] F. Zhang and G. Deng, “Probabilistic Time Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Wireless Comm., Networking and Mobile Computing (WiCom), 2005.
[11] J. Sallai, B. Kusy, A. Ledeczi, and P. Dutta, “On the Scalability of Routing Integrated Time Synchronization,” Proc. European Workshop Wireless Sensor Networks (EWSN '06), Feb. 2006.
[12] A. Syed and J. Heidemann, “Time Synchronization for High Latency Acoustic Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2006.
[13] J.V. Greunen and J. Rabaey, “Lightweight Time Synchronization for Sensor Networks,” Proc. Second ACM Int'l Workshop Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications (WSNA '03), Sept. 2003.
[14] M.L. Sichitiu and C. Veerarittiphan, “Simple, Accurate Time Synchronization for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Wireless Comm. and Networking (WCNC '03), Mar. 2003.
[15] S. Ganeriwal, D. Ganesan, H. Sim, V. Tsiatsis, and M.B. Srivastava, “Estimating Clock Uncertainty for Efficient Duty-Cycling in Sensor Networks,” Proc. Third ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '05), Nov. 2005.
[16] J. Elson and D. Estrin, “Time Synchronization for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Technical Report 200028, UCLA CS, 2001.
[17] A. Hu and S.D. Servetto, “Algorithmic Aspects of the Time Synchronization Problem in Large-Scale Sensor Networks,” ACM/Kluwer J. Mobile Networks and Applications, special issue on wireless sensor networks, 2003.
[18] V. Bychkovskiy, S. Megerian, D. Estrin, and M. Potkonjak, “A Collaborative Approach to In-Place Sensor Calibration,” Proc. Second Int'l Workshop Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN '03), vol. 2634, pp. 301-316, 2003.
[19] R.M. Karp, J. Elson, C.H. Papadimitriou, and S. Shenker, “Optimal and Global Time Synchronization in Sensornets,” Technical Report 0012, CENS, Apr. 2003.
[20] A. Giridhar and P.R. Kumar, “Distributed Clock Synchronization Over Wireless Networks: Algorithms and Analysis,” Proc. 45th IEEE Conf. Decision and Control (CDC '06), pp. 4915-4920, Dec. 2006.
[21] R. Solis, V.S. Borkar, and P.R. Kumar, “A New Distributed Time Synchronization Protocol for Multihop Wireless Networks,” Proc. 45th IEEE Conf. Decision and Control (CDC '06), pp. 2734-2739, Dec. 2006.
[22] N.M. Freris and P.R. Kumar, “Fundamental Limits on Synchronization of Affine Clocks in Networks,” Proc. 46th IEEE Conf. Decision and Control (CDC '07), Dec. 2007.
[23] B. Kusy, P. Dutta, P. Levis, M. Maroti, A. Ledeczi, and D. Culler, “Elapsed Time on Arrival: A Simple and Versatile Primitive for Canonical Time Synchronization Services,” Int'l J. Ad Hoc Ubiquitous Computing, 2006.
[24] S. Graham and P.R. Kumar, “Time in General-Purpose Control Systems: The Control Time Protocol and an Experimental Evaluation,” Proc. 43rd IEEE Conf. Decision and Control (CDC '04), pp. 4004-4009, Dec. 2004.
[25] K. Shin, K. Lee, K. Lee, P. Mah, S. Park, and H. Kim, “Enhanced Time-Sync Protocol for Embedded Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf. (VTC), 2006.
[26] R. Urick, Principles of Underwater Sound. McGraw-Hill Book, 1991.
[27] I.F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks: Research Challenges,” Ad Hoc Networks J., pp.257-279, Mar. 2005.
[28] G. Strang, Linear Algebra and Its Applications, fourth ed. Brooks Cole, July 2005.
[29] Moteiv Tmote Sky Quick Start Guide, , 2008.
[30] “Trace Collected from Tmotes,” http:/, 2008.
[31] V. Paxson, “On Calibrating Measurements of Packet Transit Times,” Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS Int'l Conf. Measurement and Modeling in Computer Systems (SIGMETRICS '98), pp. 11-21, 1998.
[32] K. Noh, Q. Chaudhari, E. Serpedin, and B.W. Suter, “Novel Clock Phase Offset and Skew Estimation Using Two-Way Timing Message Exchanges for Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 55, no. 4, Apr. 2007.
[33] L. Lamport, “Time, Clocks, and the Ordering of Event in a Distributed System,” Comm. ACM, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 558-565, 1978.
[34] L. Lamport and P. Melliar-Smith, “Synchronizing Clocks in the Presence of Faults,” J. ACM, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 52-78, 1985.
[35] C. Ellingson and R. Kulpinski, “Dissemination of System Time,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. Com-21, no. 5, May 1973.
[36] IEEE 1588 Standard for Time Synchronization, http:/ieee1588.nist. gov/, 2008.
19 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool