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Recently energy consumption becomes an ever critical concern for both low-end and high-end storage servers and data centers. A majority of existing energy conservation solutions resort to multispeed disks. However, most of current server systems are still built with conventional disks. In this paper, we propose an energy saving policy, eRAID (energy-efficient RAID), for mirrored redundant disk array architectures. eRAID saves energy by spinning down partial or entire mirror disk group with controllable performance degradation. We first develop an energy-saving model for multi-disk environment by taking into account both disk characteristics and workload features. Then, we develop a queueing model based performance (response time and throughput) control scheme for eRAID. Experimental results show that eRAID can save up to 32% energy without violating predefined performance degradation constraints.
Input/Output Devices, Parallel I/O, Queuing theory, Correlation and regression analysis, energy efficiency, power, disk, RAID, queueing model, storage, redundancy.

J. Wang, H. Zhu and D. Li, "eRAID: Conserving Energy in Conventional Disk-Based RAID System," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 57, no. , pp. 359-374, 2007.
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