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In modern day high-performance processors, the complexity of the register rename logic grows along with the pipeline width and leads to larger renaming time delay and higher power consumption. Renaming logic in the front-end of the processor is one of the largest contributors of peak temperatures on the chip and, so, demands attention to reduce the power consumption. Further, with the advent of clustered microarchitectures, the rename map table at the front-end is shared by the clusters and, hence, its critical path delay should not become a bottleneck in determining the processor clock cycle time. Analysis of characteristics of Spec2000 integer benchmark programs reveals that, when the programs are processed in a 4-wide processor, none or only one two-source instruction (an instruction with two source registers) is renamed in a cycle for 94 percent of the total execution time. Similarly, in an 8-wide processor, none or only one two-source instruction is renamed in a cycle for 92 percent of the total execution time. Thus, the analysis observes that the rename map table port bandwidth is highly underutilized for a significant portion of time. Based on the analysis, in this paper, we propose a novel technique to significantly reduce the number of ports in the rename map table. The novelty of the technique is that it is easy to implement and succeeds in reducing the access time, power, and area of the rename logic, without any additional power, area, and delay overheads in any other logic on the chip. The proposed technique performs the register renaming of instructions in the order of their fetch, with no significant impact on the processor's performance. With this technique in an 8-wide processor, as compared to a conventional rename map table in an integer pipeline with 16 ports to look up source operands, a rename map table with nine ports results in a reduction in access time, power, and area by 14 percent, 42 percent, and 49 percent, respectively, with only 4.7 percent loss in instructions committed per cycle (IPC). The implementation of the technique in a 4-wide processor results in a reduction in access time, power, and area by 7 percent, 38 percent, and 59 percent, respectively, with an IPC loss of only 4.4 percent.
Wide-issue processors, integer pipeline, rename logic complexity, front-end power consumption.

R. Sangireddy, "Reducing Rename Logic Complexity for High-Speed and Low-Power Front-End Architectures," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 55, no. , pp. 672-685, 2006.
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