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The test set embedding problem is typically formed as follows: Given an n-stage pattern generator and a test set, calculate the minimum number of steps that the generator needs to operate in order to generate all vectors in the test set. The cornerstone of a test set embedding technique is its embedding algorithm. An embedding algorithm, given an n-stage pattern generator initialized to a starting value and an n-bit target vector V, calculates the location of V in the generated sequence. In this paper, a novel algorithm is presented that calculates the location of a vector into a sequence generated by an n-stage accumulator accumulating a constant pattern. The time complexity of the algorithm is of the order {\bf O}{\rm (n)}. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first embedding algorithm of the order {\bf O}{\rm (n)} that has been presented in the literature. Experiments performed on well-known benchmark circuits reveal that complete test sets are embedded in sequences of practically acceptable length.
Built-in self-test, test set embedding, accumulator-based test pattern generation.
Ioannis Voyiatzis, "Test Vector Embedding into Accumulator-Generated Sequences: A Linear-Time Solution", IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 54, no. , pp. 476-484, April 2005, doi:10.1109/TC.2005.69
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