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<p><b>Abstract</b>—A remote memory access poses a severe problem for the design of CC-NUMA multiprocessors because it takes an order of magnitude longer than the local memory access. The large latency arises partly due to the increased distance between the processor and remote memory over the interconnection network. In this paper, we develop a new switch architecture, called Switch MSHR (SMSHR), which provides the cache block to the requesting processors without those requests having to go to the home memory. The SMSHR idea is based on providing a few miss status holding registers (MSHRs) in each switch that keep track of read requests to the memory. The SMSHR blocks secondary requests to the same memory block and provides them with a copy of the block when the primary reply returns. The SMSHR design is then extended to include a switch cache, which can temporarily save a copy of the data block for later use. We provide basic block designs for the SMSHR and SMSHR+cache architectures in this paper. We explore the design space by modeling the new switch architectures in a detailed execution-driven simulator and analyze the performance benefits. Our simulation results show that applications with a high degree of data sharing benefit tremendously from the SMSHR and SMSHR+cache techniques.</p>
CC-NUMA multiprocessor, memory latency problem, interconnection network, miss status holding register, execution-driven simulation.

L. N. Bhuyan and H. Wang, "Switch MSHR: A Technique to Reduce Remote Read Memory Access Time in CC-NUMA Multiprocessors," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 52, no. , pp. 617-632, 2003.
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