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<p><b>Abstract</b>—The goal of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is to achieve secure communication. The use of AES does not, however, guarantee reliable communication. Prior work has shown that even a single transient error occurring during the AES encryption (or decryption) process will very likely result in a large number of errors in the encrypted/decrypted data. Such faults must be detected before sending to avoid the transmission and use of erroneous data. Concurrent fault detection is important not only to protect the encryption/decryption process from random faults. It will also protect the encryption/decryption circuitry from an attacker who may maliciously inject faults in order to find the encryption secret key. In this paper, we first describe some studies of the effects that faults may have on a hardware implementation of AES by analyzing the propagation of such faults to the outputs. We then present two fault detection schemes: The first is a redundancy-based scheme while the second uses an error detecting code. The latter is a novel scheme which leads to very efficient and high coverage fault detection. Finally, the hardware costs and detection latencies of both schemes are estimated.</p>
Advanced Encryption Standard, AES, fault tolerance, fault detection, parity codes.

G. Bertoni, P. Maistri, I. Koren, L. Breveglieri and V. Piuri, "Error Analysis and Detection Procedures for a Hardware Implementation of the Advanced Encryption Standard," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 52, no. , pp. 492-505, 2003.
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