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<p>Message-driven confidence-driven (MDCD) error containment and recovery, a low-cost approach to mitigating the effect of software design faults in distributed embedded systems, is developed for onboard guarded software upgrading for deep-space missions. In this paper, we first describe and verify the MDCD algorithms in which we introduce the notion of "confidence-driven" to complement the "communication-induced" approach employed by a number of existing checkpointing protocols to achieve error containment and recovery efficiency. We then conduct a model-based analysis to show that the algorithms ensure low performance overhead. Finally, we discuss the advantages of the MDCD approach and its potential utility as a general-purpose, low-cost software fault tolerance technique for distributed embedded computing.</p>
Guarded software upgrading, message-driven confidence-driven, global state consistency and recoverability, performance overhead, software fault tolerance, distributed embedded systems.

W. Sanders, K. Tso, A. Tai, S. Chau and L. Alkalai, "Low-Cost Error Containment and Recovery for Onboard Guarded Software Upgrading and Beyond," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 51, no. , pp. 121-137, 2002.
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