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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Systems with global spares, in which a spare can replace any of multiple identical primary modules, are widely used. We present efficient algorithms for approximating the probability distribution of performance level (number of working modules) in systems with global spares and arbitrary module failure distribution. For nondegradable systems with global spares and arbitrary module failure distribution, our algorithms provide the first efficient solution for reliability. For degradable systems with global spares, our algorithms can be used to produce upper and lower bounds on various dependability measures.</p>
Dependability modeling, global spares, graceful degradation, nonexponential failures, renewal processes.

M. Yin, L. Bic and D. M. Blough, "A Dependability Analysis for Systems with Global Spares," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 49, no. , pp. 958-963, 2000.
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