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<p><b>Abstract</b>—A testable EXOR-Sum-of-Products (ESOP) circuit realization and a simple, universal test set which detects all single stuck-at faults in the internal lines and the primary inputs/outputs of the realization are given. Since ESOP is the most general form of AND-EXOR representations, our realization and test set are more versatile than those described by other researchers for the restricted GRM, FPRM, and PPRM forms of AND-EXOR circuits. Our circuit realization requires only two extra inputs for controllability and one extra output for observability. The cardinality of our test set for an <tmath>$n$</tmath> input circuit is (<tmath>$n+6$</tmath>). For Built-in Self-Test (BIST) applications, we show that our test set can be generated internally as easily as a pseudorandom pattern and that it provides 100 percent single stuck-at fault coverage. In addition, our test set requires a much shorter test cycle than a comparable pseudoexhaustive or pseudorandom test set.</p>
Universal test set, AND-EXOR realizations, Reed-Muller expressions, single stuck-at fault model, easily testable combinational networks, Design for Testing (DFT), self-testable circuits, Built-in Self-Test (BIST), test pattern generation.

D. V. Hall, U. Kalay and M. A. Perkowski, "A Minimal Universal Test Set for Self-Test of EXOR-Sum-of-Products Circuits," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 49, no. , pp. 267-276, 2000.
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