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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Preventive maintenance of operational software systems, a novel technique for software fault tolerance, is used specifically to counteract the phenomenon of software "aging." However, it incurs some overhead. The necessity to do preventive maintenance, not only in general purpose software systems of mass use, but also in safety-critical and highly available systems, clearly indicates the need to follow an analysis based approach to determine the optimal times to perform preventive maintenance.</p><p>In this paper, we present an analytical model of a software system which serves transactions. Due to aging, not only the service rate of the software decreases with time, but also the software itself experiences crash/hang failures which result in its unavailability. Two policies for preventive maintenance are modeled and expressions for resulting steady state availability, probability that an arriving transaction is lost and an upper bound on the expected response time of a transition are derived. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the applicability of the models.</p>
Preventive maintenance, software fault tolerance, software rejuvenation, transactions based software systems, reliability modeling, Markov regenerative models.

A. Puliafito, M. Telek, K. Trivedi and S. Garg, "Analysis of Preventive Maintenance in Transactions Based Software Systems," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 47, no. , pp. 96-107, 1998.
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