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<p><b>Abstract</b>—The FRIENDS system developed at LAAS-CNRS is a metalevel architecture providing libraries of metaobjects for fault tolerance, secure communication, and group-based distributed applications. The use of metaobjects provides a nice separation of concerns between mechanisms and applications. Metaobjects can be used transparently by applications and can be composed according to the needs of a given application, a given architecture, and its underlying properties. In FRIENDS, metaobjects are used recursively to add new properties to applications. They are designed using an object oriented design method and implemented on top of basic system services. This paper describes the FRIENDS software-based architecture, the object-oriented development of metaobjects, the experiments that we have done, and summarizes the advantages and drawbacks of a metaobject approach for building fault-tolerant systems.</p>
Metalevel architecture, metaobject protocols, distributed fault tolerance, object-oriented methods and languages, reusability.

J. Fabre and T. Pérennou, "A Metaobject Architecture for Fault-Tolerant Distributed Systems: The FRIENDS Approach," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 47, no. , pp. 78-95, 1998.
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