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<p><b>Abstract</b>—A new approach allows low-cost concurrent detection of two important types of faults, software and hardware data-access faults, using an extension of the existing signature monitoring approach. The proposed approach detects data-access faults using a new type of redundant data structure that contains an embedded signature. Low-cost fault detection is achieved using simple architecture support and compiler support that exploit natural redundancies in the data structures, in the instruction set architecture, and in the data-access mechanism. The software data-access faults that the approach can detect include faults that have been shown to cause a high percentage of system failures. Hardware data-access faults that occur in all levels of the data-memory hierarchy are also detectable, including faults in the register file, the data cache, the data-cache TLB, the memory address and data buses, etc. Benchmark results for the MIPS R3000 processor executing code scheduled by a modified GNU C Compiler show that the new approach can concurrently check a high percentage of data accesses, while causing little performance overhead and little memory overhead.</p>
Software fault detection, hardware fault detection, redundant data structure, on-line testing, concurrent error detection, signature monitoring, architecture support for fault detection, compiler support for fault detection.

K. D. Wilken and T. Kong, "Concurrent Detection of Software and Hardware Data-Access Faults," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 46, no. , pp. 412-424, 1997.
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