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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Rover is a software toolkit that supports the construction of both <it>mobile-transparent</it> and <it>mobile-aware</it> applications. The mobile-transparent approach aims to enable existing applications to run in a mobile environment without alteration. This transparency is achieved by developing proxies for system services that hide the mobile characteristics of the environment from applications. However, to excel, applications operating in the harsh conditions of a mobile environment must often be aware of and actively adapt to those conditions. Using the programming and communication abstractions present in the Rover toolkit, applications obtain increased availability, concurrency, resource allocation efficiency, fault tolerance, consistency, and adaptation. Experimental evaluation of a suite of mobile applications demonstrates that use of the toolkit requires relatively little programming overhead, allows correct operation, substantially increases interactive performance, and dramatically reduces network utilization.</p>
Mobile computing, distributed objects, mobile code, wireless networks, software libraries, distributed systems, replication, caching, operating systems, remote procedure call.

A. D. Joseph, M. F. Kaashoek and J. A. Tauber, "Mobile Computing with the Rover Toolkit," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 46, no. , pp. 337-352, 1997.
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