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<p><b>Abstract</b>—The value of using a higher radix for modular multiplication in the context of RSA is investigated. The main conclusion is that for algorithms which perform the multiplication via repeated addition, there is, broadly speaking, a direct trade-off between space and time provided by change of radix. Thus chip area utilized is roughly proportional to speed. However, initially, as the radix is increased from 2, there is a short-lived increase in speed greater than the extra area used.</p>
Computer arithmetic, cryptography, RSA, modular multiplication, redundant number systems, higher radix, optimal speed.

C. D. Walter, "Space/Time Trade-Offs for Higher Radix Modular Multiplication Using Repeated Addition," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 46, no. , pp. 139-141, 1997.
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