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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Although Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) has been widely used to mask the effects of a single faulty module, it cannot tolerate coincident faults in multiple modules caused by a common source, such as an environmental disruption or malfunction of a shared component. We propose a method to eliminate or alleviate the effects of (near) coincident faults by sequencing tasks on different modules in a TMR system. Specifically, we develop an <it>effective sequencing</it> of tasks to simply place an "optimal" distance (in the sense of minimizing the mean number of faulty tasks due to TMR failures) between the copies of a task to be executed on different modules. Several examples are presented, showing significant improvements in reducing TMR failures with the proposed task sequencing.</p>
TMR failure; common-cause and independent faults; conventional, random, and effective sequencing of tasks; Task Interval (TI), task distance.

K. G. Shin and H. Kim, "Sequencing Tasks to Minimize the Effects of Near-Coincident Faults in TMR Controller Computers," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 45, no. , pp. 1331-1337, 1996.
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