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<p><it>Abstract—</it>A major step toward the development of fault-tolerant computer systems is the validation of the dependability properties of these systems. Fault/error injection has been recognized as a powerful approach to validate the fault tolerance mechanisms of a system and to obtain statistics on parameters such as coverages and latencies. This paper describes the methodology and guidelines for the design of flexible software based fault and error injection and presents a tool, FERRARI, that incorporates the techniques. The techniques used to emulate transient errors and permanent faults in software are described in detail. Experimental results are presented for several error detection techniques, and they demonstrate the effectiveness of the software-based error injection tool in evaluating the dependability properties of complex systems.</p><p><it>Index Terms—</it>Fault injection, error injection, real time, coverage, latency.</p>

J. A. Abraham, G. A. Kanawati and N. A. Kanawati, "FERRARI: A Flexible Software-Based Fault and Error Injection System," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 44, no. , pp. 248-260, 1995.
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