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<p><it>Abstract—</it>Good programming language support can simplify the task of writing fault-tolerant distributed software. Here, an approach to providing such support is described in which a general high-level distributed programming language is augmented with mechanisms for fault tolerance. Unlike approaches based on sequential languages or specialized languages oriented towards a given fault-tolerance technique, this approach gives the programmer a high level of abstraction, while still maintaining flexibility and execution efficiency. The paper first describes a programming model that captures the important characteristics that should be supported by a programming language of this type. It then presents a realization of this approach in the form of FT-SR, a programming language that augments the SR distributed programming language with features for replication, recovery, and failure notification. In addition to outlining these extensions, an example program consisting of a data manager and its associated stable storage is given. Finally, an implementation of the language that uses the <math><tmath>$\mbi{x}$</tmath></math>-kernel and runs standalone on a network of Sun workstations is discussed. The overall structure and several of the algorithms used in the runtime are interesting in their own right.</p>

R. D. Schlichting and V. T. Thomas, "Programming Language Support for Writing Fault-Tolerant Distributed Software," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 44, no. , pp. 203-212, 1995.
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