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<p>The paper compares the trace-sampling techniques of set sampling and time sampling. Using the multi-billion reference traces of A. Borg et al. (1990), we apply both techniques to multi-megabyte caches, where sampling is most valuable. We evaluate whether either technique meets a 10% sampling goal: a method meets this goal if, at least 90% of the time, it estimates the trace's true misses per instruction with /spl les/10% relative error using /spl les/10% of the trace. Results for these traces and caches show that set sampling meets the 10% sampling goal, while time sampling does not. We also find that cold-start bias in time samples is most effectively reduced by the technique of D.A. Wood et al. (1991). Nevertheless, overcoming cold-start bias requires tens of millions of consecutive references.</p>
buffer storage; memory architecture; program diagnostics; performance evaluation; digital simulation; trace-sampling techniques; multi-megabyte caches; time sampling; reference traces; sampling goal; relative error; cold-start bias; consecutive references.

R. Kessler, M. Hill and D. Wood, "A Comparison of Trace-Sampling Techniques for Multi-Megabyte Caches," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 43, no. , pp. 664-675, 1994.
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