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<p>An approach for simulating models of highly dependable systems with general failure and repair time distribution is described. The approach combines importance sampling with event rescheduling in order to obtain variance reductions in such rare event simulations. The approach is general in nature and allows a variety of features commonly arising in dependability modeling to be simulated effectively. It is shown how the technique can be applied to systems with redundant components and/or periodic maintenance. For different failure time distributions, the effect of the maintenance period on the steady-state availability is explored. The amount of component redundancy needed to achieve a certain reliability level is determined.</p>
discrete event simulation; discrete time systems; probability; redundancy; reliability theory; highly dependable systems; failure and repair; dependable systems; event rescheduling; variance reductions; rare event simulations; component redundancy; reliability; discrete-event systems; highly reliable systems; importance sampling.

V. Nicola, P. Heidelberger, M. Nakayama and A. Goyal, "Fast Simulation of Highly Dependable Systems with General Failure and Repair Processes," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 42, no. , pp. 1440-1452, 1993.
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