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<p>The locally redundant modular tree (LRMT) schemes offer high yield and reliability for trees of relatively few levels but are less effective for large binary trees due to the imbalance of reliability of different levels. A new multiple-level redundancy tree (MLRT) architecture that combines modular schemes with level-oriented schemes which lead to better yield and reliability is presented. The MLRT structure enhances the wafer yield to significant levels by offering separate layers of protection for random and clustered defects. Unlike most existing techniques, this technique performs a more accurate reliability analysis by taking into account both switch and link failures. A measure called the marginal switch to processing element area ratio (MSR) is introduced to precisely characterize the effect of switch complexity on the reliability of the redundant system. A systematic method for the optimal distribution of spare modules of the MLRT structure is also presented. The analyses show that the MLRT structure offers higher yield and system reliability than LRMT and subtree-oriented fault-tolerance (SOFT) structures do.</p>
binary-tree architectures; multiple-level redundancy; locally redundant modular tree; multiple-level redundancy tree; MLRT; wafer yield; marginal switch to processing element area ratio; MSR; switch complexity; reliability; system reliability; subtree-oriented fault-tolerance; SOFT; fault tolerant computing; parallel architectures; redundancy.

Y. Chen and S. Upadhyaya, "Reliability, Reconfiguration, and Spare Allocation Issues in Binary-Tree Architectures Based on Multiple-Level Redundancy," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 42, no. , pp. 713-723, 1993.
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